Seeds of South Australia
Banksia ornata (Proteaceae)
Desert banksia
List of species for Banksia
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Murray, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern   [responds well to fire]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [PC a significant threat; widespread; drought has affected numbers; not much regeneration on roadsides]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [lack of recruitment, some pops have collapsed; Cox Scrub, Newland Head patches show how hot clean burn is important not cold burns, therefore require appropriate fire regimes for survival]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [needs regular & appropriate fire intervals for recruitment; fire freq too high at moment therefore can arguably put in decline]
Eyre Hills (EYB03)Eyre Yorke Block
 Near Threatened
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [restricted to deep acid sands]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Near Threatened   [responds well to fire]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern   [threats: over & under burning]
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Banksia]
Name derivation:
Banksia named after Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820), a 19th century botanist and president of the Royal Society who travelled with Captain Cook on his first voyage to 'New Holland' in 1770. Ornata Latin for adorned, ornate.
Found across the lower regions of South Australia, south of Nuriootpa and lower Eyre Peninsula on sandy soils on dunes or over limestone or laterite, in mallee shrubland or low woodland. Also found in Victoria.
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in Victoria.
Plant description:
Bushy, branching shrub to 3m tall with green, hairless and finely serrated leaves. Young leaves are hairy and copper coloured. Flowers are creamy in a large ovoid cluster. Flowering occurs all year round.
Fruit type:
Large, hairy, woody cones with numerous valves.
Seed type:
Dark brown to black, flat, triangular seed to 10mm long with a large wing around one end.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect mature cones with obvious un-open valves. These will contain viable seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the cones in a tray and leave to dry until the valves open. Alternatively, place the cones in an oven at low temperatures to speed up the process. Then place the dried cones in a bucket and shake to dislodge the seeds from the valves. Separate the seeds from the fruit and store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 80%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
859-Jan-2004MKJ 16
Kangaroo Island
1-Sep-200480%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-0476%29 d36 d 20% hydrogen peroxide 10 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)