Seeds of South Australia
Juncus bufonius (Juncaceae)
Toad Rush
List of species for Juncus
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Seed collecting:
October
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Near Threatened   [edge of range]
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern   [annual, weedy]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern   [could be increasing]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Near Threatened
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Near Threatened
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Near Threatened
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Near Threatened
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Near Threatened
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Near Threatened
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [could be introduced]
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria Desert
 Near Threatened
Murnpeowie (STP03)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [could be introduced]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
6 of 8 subregionsGawlerNear Threatened
, Rare
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria DesertNear Threatened
Murnpeowie (STP03)Stony PlainsRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central RangesRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [could be introduced]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Juncus]
Name derivation:
Juncus from the Latin 'jungere' meaning to tie or bind; referring to the use of the rushes for weaving and basketry. Bufonius from the Latin 'bufo' meaning toad and suffix '-onis' meaning of; referring to the plant growing in damp places, like a toad.
Distribution:
Found in the southern part of South Australia, growing in permanently or seasonally damp areas in a range of vegetation communities. Also found in all states except in the Northern Territory (where it has be introduced) and widely distributed in other parts of the world, particularly in temperate areas.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Fruit type:
Clusters of golden brown ellipsoid capsules with numerous seeds.
Seed type:
Tiny orange-red ellipsoid seed to 0.4 mm long and 0.2 mm wide, with fine reticulated surface.
Embryo type:
Broad.
Seed collecting:
Collect fruits either by picking off the mature heads, those turning brown and come-off easily or break-off the whole spikes.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the heads with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Be careful, as the seeds are very small. Seeds are brown and hard. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA77000 (1.15 g)30+15-Oct-2009DJD1613
Yorke Peninsula
Jun-2010100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.