Seeds of South Australia
Juncus holoschoenus (Juncaceae)
Joint-leaf Rush
List of species for Juncus
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
February to May
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Near Threatened
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [habitat degrading]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [weeds/blackberry - threat]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN A2ac; D)   (Definite Decline)
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN A2ac; D)   (Definite Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN A2ac; D)   (Definite Decline)
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [far edge of range; spread by birds]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR D)   (Definite Decline)
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [loss of habitat ]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
3 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainNear Threatened
, Rare
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooNear Threatened
  (Probable Decline)   [habitat degrading]
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockNear Threatened
, Endangered
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke BlockCritically Endangered
  (IUCN: CR D)   (Definite Decline)
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionRare
, Endangered
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Juncus]
Name derivation:
Juncus from the Latin 'jungere' meaning to tie or bind; referring to the use of the rushes for weaving and basketry. Holoschoenus possibly from the Greek 'holos' meaning entirely and 'schoinos' meaning rush, reed; unsure of its reference to the species.
Found in the Flinders Ranges, Mount Lofty Ranges and the South-east in South Australia, growing in damp grassland and along the edge of water. Also found in Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Native. Rare in South Australia. Rare in Queensland. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Tufted or shortly rhizomatous perennial rush with greyish-green stems to 45 cm high and 3 mm diameter. Leaves cauline with hollow blade hollow, usually at least as long as the stem, terete or slightly compressed, to 4 mm wide. Inflorescence terminal in loose clusters with many light brown flowers with reddish tinged towards the apex. Flowering between December and March.
Fruit type:
Clusters of light brown to golden-brown, trigonous-ovoid capsules with numerous seeds.
Seed type:
Tiny orange ovoid seed to 0.5 mm long and 0.3 mm wide, with fine reticulated surface.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect fruits either by picking off the mature heads, those turning brown and come-off easily or break-off the whole spikes.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the heads with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Be careful, as the seeds are very small. Seeds are brown and hard. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was average, at 55%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
19500 (0.303 g)
19500 (0.303 g)
South Eastern
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.