Seeds of South Australia
Juncus homalocaulis (Juncaceae)
Wiry Rush
List of species for Juncus
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
January to April
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Murray, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Lucindale (NCP03)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)   [likes red gums]
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [changed hydrology, weeds - threats]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [changed hydrology, weeds - threats]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN A2a)   (Definite Decline)
Wimmera (MDD05)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [likes red gums]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Juncus]
Name derivation:
Juncus from the Latin 'jungere' meaning to tie or bind; referring to the use of the rushes for weaving and basketry. Homalocaulis from the Greek 'homalos' meaning flat and 'caulis' meaning stem; referring to the compressed culms.
Distribution:
Found in the southern Flinders Ranges, southern Mount Lofty Ranges and the South-east in South Australia, growing in damp sites in grassland, woodland and dry sclerophyll forests. Also found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Very rare in South Australia. Uncommon in Queensland. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Small slender tufted with shortly rhizomatous perennial rush with erect stems to 15 cm high, terete to compressed, covered with the fibrous remains of old leaf-sheaths. Leaves mostly basal, filiform, solid, dorsi-ventrally flattened, channelled above, shorter or longer than the stems. Inflorescence terminal, in clusters or solitary with many straw-brown to red-brown flowers. Flowering between December and February.
Fruit type:
Clusters of light brown to reddish-brown ellipsoid capsules with numerous seeds.
Seed type:
Tiny deep red ovoid seed to 0.6 mm long and 0.4 mm wide, with deep reticulated surface.
Embryo type:
Broad.
Seed collecting:
Collect fruits either by picking off the mature heads, those turning brown and come-off easily or break-off the whole spikes.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the heads with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Be careful, as the seeds are very small. Seeds are brown and hard. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
85200 (3.23 g)
58100 (2.21 g)
303-Jan-2007RJB70975
Murray
1-Aug-2007100%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.