Seeds of South Australia
Juncus kraussii (Juncaceae)
Sea Rush
List of species for Juncus
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Seed collecting:
January to May
Herbarium regions:
Lake Eyre, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern   [on water courses, in brackish areas, also on roadsides; tolerates grazing & disturbance]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)   [likes salinity/brackishness]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)   [likes salinity/brackishness]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern   [around mound springs]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern   [around mound springs]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern   [undercollected]
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern   [undercollected]
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)   [increase due to increased salinity]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Increase)   [increase due to increased salinity]
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Least Concern
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [limited habitat]
Warriner (SSD04)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Near Threatened   [around mound springs]
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [around mound springs]
Oodnadatta (STP02)Stony Plains
 Near Threatened   [around mound springs]
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [around mound springs]
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [around mound springs]
Witjira (STP06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [limited habitat; around mound springs]
Baltana (STP07) 
 Near Threatened   [around mound springs]
IBRA regions
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
4 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
5 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 8 subregionsGawlerRare
2 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsNear Threatened
, Rare
5 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsNear Threatened
, Rare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Juncus]
Name derivation:
Juncus from the Latin 'jungere' meaning to tie or bind; referring to the use of the rushes for weaving and basketry. Kraussii named after Christian Ferdinand Friedrich von Krauss (1812-1980), a German zoologist, naturalist, museum keeper and collector in South Africa.
Found on the eastern side in South Australia, growing in saline and brackish wetlands along the coast and in similar sites inland. Also found in all states (and New Zealand, southern Africa, South America).
Native. Common in South Australia. rare in the Northern territory. Common in the other states. 
Plant description:
Tussock-forming, strongly rhizomatous perennial sedge to 1 m high, with  a rigid, cylindrical culms to 4 mm diameter with a continuous pith. Leaves basal, terete, pungent, equalling culms, sheath golden brown. Inflorescence terminal diffuse spike to 20 cm long with clusters of straw-brown to red-brown flowers. Flowering between December to March.
Fruit type:
Clusters of red-brown or golden-brown, darker (often blackish) in the upper half, shining, ovoid to ellipsoid, capsule to 3 mm long.
Seed type:
Tiny ellipsoid seed.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect fruits either by picking off the mature heads, those turning brown and come-off easily or break-off the whole spikes.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the heads with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Be careful, as the seeds are very small. Seeds are brown and hard. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.