Seeds of South Australia
Juncus radula (Juncaceae)
Hoary Rush
List of species for Juncus
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
November to April
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South East
IBRA regions
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [likes grassy ecosystems & black cracking hard mud; needs more survey work]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU A2ac; C2a(i))   (Definite Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU A2ac; C2a(i))   (Definite Decline)
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU A2ac; C2a(i))   (Definite Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR B2ab(i,ii,iii); D)   (Definite Decline)   [possibly extinct]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Juncus]
Name derivation:
Juncus from the Latin 'jungere' meaning to tie or bind; referring to the use of the rushes for weaving and basketry. Radula from the Latin 'radere' meaning to scrape; referring to its distinctly scabrous upper part of the stems, panicle branches and outside of the perianth.
Found in the southern Flinders Ranges, Mount Lofty Ranges and the upper South-east, growing on seasonally damp areas in depressions and along drainage lines in woodland and open grassland. Also found in Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.
Native. Rare in South Australia. Rare in Queensland. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Slender, shortly rhizomatous perennial sedge to 65 cm high, distinctly scabrous especially on the upper part of the stems, panicle branches and outside of the perianth. Culms terete, to 2.3 mm diameter, with a continuous pith; stem striations 13-28, no leaf-blade leaf-sheaths usually pale. Inflorescence  lateral loose panicle to 12 cm long with straw-brown flowers evenly spaced along the panicle branches, branches scabrous, tepals often scabrous on midrib. Flowering between October and March.
Fruit type:
Clusters of golden brown ellipsoid to ovoid capsules with numerous seeds.
Seed type:
Tiny orange ellipsoid seed to 0.5 mm long and 0.2 mm wide, with fine reticulated surface.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect fruits either by picking off the mature heads, those turning brown and come-off easily or break-off the whole spikes.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the heads with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Be careful, as the seeds are very small. Seeds are brown and hard. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were high, at 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA21000 (0.52 g)5012-Jan-2008RJB76885
Southern Lofty
BGA330000 (7.01 g)50+17-Dec-2009DJD1785
South Eastern
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.