Seeds of South Australia
Acaena novae-zelandiae (Rosaceae)
List of species for Acaena
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Seed collecting:
November to February
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Least Concern
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Least Concern
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern   [records have been split into varieties]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [(no records), climate sensitive, R Bates]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [limited habitat]
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
2 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Vulnerable
2 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockRare
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Acaena]
Name derivation:
Acaena from the Greek 'acaina' meaning a thorn, referring to the genus prickly fruit. Novae-zelandiae means of or from New Zealand, referring to where the type specimen was first collected or the assumption that the species is restricted to New Zealand.
Found along the coast of South Australia on the tip of Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas, Kangaroo Island, Mount Lofty Ranges and in the South-east, growing in moist areas. Also found in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and New Zealand. Introduced to Western Australia.
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other States. Naturalised in Western Australia.
Plant description:
Procumbent stoloniferous perennial herb. Leaves ovate with 3 or 4 pairs of leaflets, usually to 9 cm long (including petiole), glabrous or variously hairy especially below. Flowers  in globular heads on long terminal stalk with creamy-white stamens. Flowering between September and December.
Fruit type:
Globular head to 15 mm across consisting of numerous seeds.
Seed type:
Hairy woody triangular seed with 4 slender glabrous, subequal spines to 10 mm long.
Seed collecting:
Pick seeds that are turning brown. You can either pick whole fruit heads which will have numerous seeds or collect individual brown seeds. Be careful when collecting, as the seeds are spiny.
Seed cleaning:
Place the fruit heads in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks. If the collection consist of mainly individual seeds, then store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place. If collected with other material, then rub the dried flower heads with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Aug-14100%14 d14 d leached in water 7 d;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Aug-14100%14 d14 d
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)