Seeds of South Australia
Lawrencia squamata (Malvaceae)
Thorny Lawrencia
List of species for Lawrencia
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
September to January
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Near Threatened
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [semi arid sp; edge of range]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [lots on West Is.]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)   [St Vincent Gulf coastline]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern   [undercollected]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [long-lived, resistant to grazing]
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Near Threatened   [not typical habitat]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Least Concern
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Least Concern
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Near Threatened
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03) 
 Least Concern
Hampton (HAM01)Hampton
 Least Concern
Simpson Desert (SSD02)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Least Concern
Dieri (SSD03) 
 Least Concern
Warriner (SSD04) 
 Least Concern
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Near Threatened   [undercollected]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
2 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainNear Threatened
, Rare
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooRare
, Vulnerable
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Vulnerable
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaNear Threatened
  [not typical habitat]
7 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
3 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
2 of 3 subregionsNullarborLeast Concern
Hampton (HAM01)HamptonLeast Concern
3 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
4 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel CountryNear Threatened
  [undercollected]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Lawrencia]
Name derivation:
Lawrencia named after Robert Williams Lawrence (1807-33), an English-born botanist and plant collector in Tasmania. Squamata from Latin 'squama' meaning scale; referring to the minute peltate scales on the leaves surfaces giving the plant a greyish appearance.
Distribution:
Found across South Australia, growing on clay soils often gypsum-rich fringing salt lakes, saline depressions, tidal flats and coastal inlets. Found in all mainland states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Uncommon in the Northern Territory and Queensland.
Plant description:
Low rigid spinescent dioecious shrub to 60 cm high. Leaves fleshy but sometimes channelled above, stalk-less, linear to narrow-obovate, to 10 mm long, entire or with a few apical teeth, surfaces appearing greyish from a layer of minute fringed peltate scales. Inflorescence solitary, axillary with unisexual flowers. Male flowers with calyx hemispherical with 5 very short, rounded lobes and white or yellow, sometimes reddish-tinged petals. Female flowers with calyx subcylindric, barely exceeded by petals. Flowering between May and November.
Fruit type:
Red glabrous ovoid fruit to 3 mm long, consisting of a number of segments, with only one maturing and producing a seed.
Seed type:
Yellow-brown ovoid seed to 2 mm long and 2 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Folded.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature fruits, those that are fat and reddish in colour and the segment contain a dark hard seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the fruits in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the fruits with a rubber bung to separate the  seed. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 90%.
Seed germination:
This species has physical dormancy that needs to be overcome for the seed to germinate (e.g. nicking or softening the seed coat).
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
13900 (31.29 g)
13900 (31.29 g)
30+11-Dec-2007DJD995
Murray
19-Sep-200890%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.