Seeds of South Australia
Leionema equestre (Rutaceae)
Saddle-leaf Phebalium
List of species for Leionema
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Seed collecting:
November to February
Herbarium region:
Kangaroo Island
NRM region:
Kangaroo Island
IBRA region
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv); C2a(i))   (Probable Decline)   [endemic; mostly on roadsides; not protected; post-fire sp; small pop at Stokes Bay; roadworks, flooding, weeds, dust, lack of fire: threats]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Leionema]
Name derivation:
Leionema from the Greek 'leios' meaning smooth and 'nema' meaning thread; referring to the 'hilar strand', which is a small piece of tissue joining the hilum (scar on the side of the seed) to the ovule. Esquestre from the Latin 'equester' meaning belonging to cavalry or to horsemen; referring to its saddle-shaped leaves.
Distribution:
Endemic to South Australia and restricted to a small area on Kangaroo Island, growing on sandy soils and lateritic soil in Eucalyptus diversifolia and E. cneorifolia mallee.
Status:
Native. Very rare in South Australia.
Plant description:
Dwarf spreading shrub to 30 cm high with repeatedly diverging branches, branchlets slender, smooth, green or becoming reddish, pubescent with stellate hairs. Leaves very shortly petiolate, patent, saddle-shaped, tranversely oblong, cordate, to 3.5 mm long and 1.5 mm wide, dotted with depressed glands, scabrous above, glabrous below, margins entire, recurved. Inflorescence terminal cluster with 1 to 3 white to pink flowers. Flowering between August and October
Fruit type:
Pale brown, warty two segmented capsule to 3 mm long.
Seed type:
Brown bean-like seed to 3 mm long and 2 mm wide, smooth.
Embryo type:
Linear fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsules, those that are turning a pale straw colour and contain hard seeds. The seed pods split apart when fully ripe so timing of seed collections is important. Monitor fruits closely and either collect the pods close to maturity (when they turn brown) or bag maturing fruits.

In 2016 seed collections were achieved for two roadside populations and a third population on private property near Stokes Bay on Kangaroo island with the support of the Australian Seed Bank Partnership

Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for a weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were average to high, ranging from 55% to 80%.
Seed germination:
This species has morphophysiological dormancy and can be difficult to germinate.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
1387
1387
10419-Feb-2004PJA 43
Kangaroo Island
1-Sep-200480%-18°C
BGA15054019-Feb-2004PJA 44
Kangaroo Island
1-Sep-200455%+5°C, -18°C
BGA1392569-Dec-2003PJA 61
Kangaroo Island
1-Sep-200490%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jun-1733%14NA 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water for 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1623%42 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 20 min, water rinse, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1623%42 dNA dry heat 90°C oven 15 min, 30% hydrogen peroxide 20 min, water rinse, 10% smoke water + 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jun-1717%14NA 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-163%49 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 20 min, water rinse;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-042%54 dNA seed coat nicked with scalpel, 20% hydrogen peroxide 10 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sponge;
14/10;  /  20°C/10°C
Jul-042%47 dNA 20% hydrogen peroxide 10 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sponge;
14/10;  /  20°C/10°C
Jul-160%NANA 30% hydrogen peroxide 20 min, water rinse, 10% smoke water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-160%NANA dry heat 90°C oven 15 min, 30% hydrogen peroxide 20 min, water rinse;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)