Seeds of South Australia
Leionema hillebrandii (Rutaceae)
Mount Lofty Leionema
List of species for Leionema
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Seed collecting:
November to January
Herbarium region:
Southern Lofty
NRM region:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges
IBRA region
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)   [endemic to Mt Lofty; habitat degradation re weed pressure]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Leionema]
Name derivation:
Leionema from the Greek 'leios' meaning smooth and 'nema' meaning thread. Hillebrandii named after William Hilleband (1821 - 1886), a German physician and botanist who visited South Australia for 6 months in 1849 and made a few collections from near the mouth of the River Murray and Lake Alexandrina, and in the vicinity of Reedy Creek.  
Endemic to South Australia and found only in the southern Mount Lofty Ranges, growing in heathy woodland and forest gullies often in open rocky habitat along steep gullies.
Native. Rare in South Australia.
Plant description:
Small straggly shrub to 60 cm with slender, smooth, reddish to olive brown stems and branchlets. Leaves ovoid, covery in soft hairs, dark green above and pale green below. Inflorescence in terminal clusters of two to sixteen, white with pink back flowers. Flowering between August and October.
Fruit type:
Pale brown, two to four segmented capsule.
Seed type:
Brown bean-like seed to 3.5 mm long and 2 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Linear fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsules, those that are turning a pale straw colour and contain hard seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for a weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability were average to high, ranging from 75% to 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has morphophysiological dormancy and can be difficult to germinate.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
8323-Dec-2003PJA 76
Southern Lofty
BGA2900 (10.65 g)16-Nov-2006PJA146
Southern Lofty
BGA310 (1.5 g)50+7-Dec-2007PJA160
Southern Lofty
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-042%57 dNA seed coat nicked with scalpel, 20% hydrogen peroxide 10 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sponge;
14/10;  /  20°C/10°C
Jul-040%NANA 20% hydrogen peroxide 10 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sponge;
14/10;  /  20°C/10°C
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)