Seeds of South Australia
Leptorhynchos orientalis (Compositae)
Eastern Annual Buttons
List of species for Leptorhynchos
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Seed collecting:
October to November
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, South East
IBRA regions
Lucindale (NCP03)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Regionally Extinct   [presumed extinct]
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Regionally Extinct   [Taxonomic Issues. Possibly regionally extinct.]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Leptorhynchos]
Name derivation:
Leptorhynchos from the Greek 'leptos' meaning slender and 'rhynchos' meaning a snout; alluding to the beaked achenes of some species. Orientalis means of or from the Orient; alluding to the species distribution in the eastern side of Australia.
Distribution:
Only known from the Eyre Peninsula in South Australia. Other records from the Mount Lofty Ranges and the lower South-east are from 1938 or older and presumed extinct from those locations. Also found in New South Wales (from one location) and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Very rare in South Australia. Very rare in the other states.
Plant description:
Erect to multi-stemmed annual to 30 cm high. Branches slender, minutely puberlous with gland-tipped and septate hairs. Leaves linear to 2 cm long, acute, margins recurved, scattered minute gland-tipped hairs and short whitish septate hairs. Flower-head broadly turbinate, bracts in many rows with ciliate hairs on the margins; outer and intermediate bracts very narrow-triangular, translucent, with reddish brown glandular sterome at base; inner bracts c. 7 mm long with linear green cartilaginous glandular stereome and narrow translucent margins. Florets bisexual. Corolla c. 6 mm long, sparsely glandular-puberlous. Florets yellow. Flowers in spring.
Fruit type:
White fluffy daisy-head.
Seed type:
Brown, semi-flat ovoid seed to 2 mm long and 0.5 mm wide, covered in tubercules and with a long tail with white papus at the end.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect heads that are fluffy. Either pick off the whole heads or use your finger and pull off the seeds from the head. Mature seeds will come off easily.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray for a week to dry. No cleaning is required if only pure seeds are collected. If heads are collected, then rub the heads gently with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Viable seeds will be fat and hard. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection viability was high at 90%
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-16100%7 d7 d 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1687%7 d14 d 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1678%7 d14 d leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1677%7 d14 d leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Oct-1543%7 dNA 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Oct-1536%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Oct-1520%7 dNA 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Oct-1510%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)