Seeds of South Australia
Actinobole uliginosum (Compositae)
Camel Dung
List of species for Actinobole
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Seed collecting:
October to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Lucindale (NCP03)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [undercollected, all records are outside of reserves]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Near Threatened   [limited habitat]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern   [annual; habitat quality declined; undercollected; likes scalds]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Near Threatened   [edge of range]
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Near Threatened
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Least Concern
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Near Threatened   [edge of range; not typical habitat]
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Least Concern   [undercollected]
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Least Concern   [buffel grass potential threat]
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Near Threatened   [edge of range]
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)Nullarbor
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Yalata (NUL03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern
Barrier Range Outwash (BHC04) 
 Least Concern
Bimbowrie (BHC05) 
 Least Concern
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Least Concern
Warriner (SSD04)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i))
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Near Threatened   [undercollected ]
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Near Threatened   [undercollected ]
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Near Threatened   [edge of range]
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern   [buffel grass potential threat]
Watarru (CER02) 
 Least Concern   [buffel grass potential threat]
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Least Concern   [buffel grass potential threat]
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
2 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooNear Threatened
, Rare
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
6 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaLeast Concern
8 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
4 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
2 of 3 subregionsNullarborRare
4 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
Warriner (SSD04)Simpson Strzelecki DunefieldsRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i))
3 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsNear Threatened
3 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)FinkeLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Actinobole]
Name derivation:
Actinobole from the Greek 'aktinos' meaning ray-like or radiating structure and 'bolos' meaning lump or mass, referring to the general appearance of the florets surrounded by the reflexed laminae of the capitular bracts. Uliginosum meaning to grow in bogs and swamps.
Distribution:
Found across South Australia, in temperate to arid habitats, favouring sandy soils. Also found in all mainland states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Small herbs with stems reduced and the entire plant consisting of a single inflorescence surrounded by a basal rosette of leaves, or the stem with major branches at or near the base. Flowers yellow fluffy balls. Flowering between August and November.
Fruit type:
Reddish brown, tiny daisy-heads to 0.85 mm long and 0.45 mm, covered in white woolly hairs.
Seed type:
Tiny brown ovoid seed to 0.7 mm long and 0.4 mm wide are covered in small round projections.
Embryo type:
Spatulate.
Seed collecting:
Collect heads or whole plants that are brown or turning brown. Each head should have numerous tiny seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray for a week to dry. Then rub the heads gently with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Use a fine sieve to separate the seeds from the unwanted material. Be careful as the seeds are very small. The seeds are dark brown and ovoid in shape. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
March 201492%8d17d None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under winter conditions
March 201484%8d17d None
70mm glass petri dishes on 1% w/v agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)