Seeds of South Australia
Lomandra effusa (Liliaceae)
Scented Iron-grass
List of species for Lomandra
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Seed collecting:
November to December
Herbarium regions:
Nullarbor, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [lack of regeneration/disturbance/urbanisation]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [cropping]
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [cropping]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [cropping]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [in Wilpena Pd ]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [cropping]
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [cropping]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Near Threatened
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [limited habitat ]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Hampton (HAM01)Hampton
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
3 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
, Rare
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooLeast Concern
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
, Vulnerable
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
5 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [limited habitat ]
3 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria DesertLeast Concern
Yalata (NUL03)NullarborLeast Concern
Hampton (HAM01)HamptonLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Lomandra]
Name derivation:
Lomandra from the Greek 'loma' meaning edge, border or fringe and 'andros' meaning a male; alluding to the circular margin of the anthers in some species. Effusa from Latin for loosely spreading; alluding to the species habit.
Distribution:
Found in the southern part of South Australia, except in the lower South-east, growing on sandy to clay loam in grassland or open woodland . A dominant species in the EPBC listed Peppermint Box grassy woodland and Iron Grass natural temperate grassland. Also found in Western Australia, New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Dioecious perennial, rigid iron grass with leaves to 80 cm long with 2 toothed at the tip. Flowers scented white to pale pink, scattered along the branches of a slender spreading spike. Flowering between May and October.
Fruit type:
Brown ovoid capsule to 9 mm long, with valves striate lengthwise.
Seed type:
Brown, rounded wedge shaped seed to 8 mm long and 4 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Linear underdeveloped.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature fruits, turning brown with a hard seed inside or when they are starting to split.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has morphophysiological dormancy and will germinate slowly over weeks to months.

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Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Mar-1592%21 d35 d 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid for 72 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Jul-1582%28d35d 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 48 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Mar-1474%28 d49 d 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Dec-1272%28 d49 d leached in water 24 h, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 16 h;
1% agar;
12/12;  /  15°C
Dec-1265%35 d77 d 10% smoke water 24 h;
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1565%21d42d 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 250 mg/L gibberellic acid for 48 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Mar-1462%42 d56 d leached in water 24 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Dec-1250%35 d77 d 10% smoke water 24 h;
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1550%28d70d 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Dec-1248%28 dNA
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-1544%35 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Dec-1218%49 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Dec-123%77 dNA dry heat 90°C oven 15 min, 10% smoke water 24 h;
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Dec-123%77 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Dec-120%NANA dry heat 90°C oven 15 min, 10% smoke water 24 h;
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)