Seeds of South Australia
Lomandra juncea (Liliaceae)
Desert Mat-rush
List of species for Lomandra
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Seed collecting:
November to December
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Murray, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Near Threatened
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Near Threatened
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [only 1 pop near Flinders Chase; mallee sp; disjunct pop]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Near Threatened   [likes deep sands, undercollected, lack of regeneration]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [limited habitat]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Regionally Extinct
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Near Threatened   [rainfall sensitive]
Talia (EYB04) 
 Near Threatened   [rainfall sensitive]
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern   [rainfall sensitive]
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Near Threatened
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Near Threatened   [rainfall sensitive]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooNear Threatened
, Vulnerable
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty BlockRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [limited habitat]
4 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Regionally Extinct
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
Myall Plains (GAW01)GawlerNear Threatened
  [rainfall sensitive]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Lomandra]
Name derivation:
Lomandra from the Greek 'loma' meaning edge, border or fringe and 'andros' meaning a male; alluding to the circular margin of the anthers in some species. Juncea from Latin meaning rush-like; alluding to its appearance.
Distribution:
Found on Eyre Peninsula, Mount Lofty Ranges, Murrayland and upper Southeast in South Australia, growing in mallee communities on sandy soils. Also found in Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in Victoria.
Plant description:
Tussocked perennial herb. Leaves to 50 cm long and1.5 mm wide, terete, rigid, apex pungent. Inflorescences much shorter than leaves, the male with 3–7 spherical segments, the female with l or 2. Perianth 5 mm long, sepals white, petals yellowish. Flowering between August and October.
Fruit type:
Dark purple, almost globular capsule to 6 mm long, smooth.
Seed type:
Yellow-brown, rounded wedge shaped seed to 4 mm long and 3 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Linear underdeveloped.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature fruits, turning brown with a hard seed inside or when they are starting to split.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability were high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has morphophysiological dormancy and is difficult to germinate.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
3200 (28 g)
3200 (28 g)
30-4020-Nov-2006DJD690
Murray
1-Aug-2007100%-18°C
BGA200 (1.848 g)2021-Dec-2010Frances
South Eastern
1-Jan-2012100%
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-1570%28 d42 d 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, leached in aerated water 72 h, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid for 72 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Jul-1562%35 d49 d dry heat 50 °C oven 24 h, 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Jul-1560%28 d56 d 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid for 72 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Jul-1558%35d49d 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid for 72 h;
1% agar;
12/12;  /  15°C
Jul-1540%42 dNA 3% hydrogen peroxide for 72 h, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid for 72 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Mar-1535%28 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid for 72 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Mar-1535%28 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water for 72 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Sep-1434%35 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, dry heat 35°C oven for 6 weeks with 24 h wet cycle once a week, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Sep-1424%42 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Sep-1412%56 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse,
1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Sep-1412%42 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, dry heat 35°C oven for 6 weeks, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-1412%28 dNA 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Mar-157%28 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Mar-157%28 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 10% smoke water for 24 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Sep-146%49 dNA dry heat 90°C oven 15 min, 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-146%28 dNA leached in water 24 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Sep-142%77 dNA dry heat 90°C oven 15 min, 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)