Seeds of South Australia
Lomandra leucocephala ssp. robusta (Liliaceae)
Woolly-head Mat-rush
List of species for Lomandra
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Seed collecting:
September to November
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [needs deep sands]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA ab)   (Definite Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR D)   (Definite Decline)   [only 5 plants seen]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA ab)   (Definite Decline)
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA ab)   (Definite Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Near Threatened
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Least Concern
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [lack of suitable habitat]
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [lack of suitable habitat]
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [scattered & uncommon]
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03)Nullarbor
 Least Concern   [lack of suitable habitat]
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [scattered & uncommon]
Witjira (STP06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [scattered & uncommon]
Everard Block (CER03)Central Ranges
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [scattered & uncommon]
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [scattered & uncommon]
Pedirka (FIN04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [scattered & uncommon]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
3 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockRare
, Vulnerable
, Critically Endangered
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaLeast Concern
3 of 8 subregionsGawlerRare
3 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
, Rare
Yalata (NUL03)NullarborLeast Concern
  [lack of suitable habitat]
2 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsRare
Everard Block (CER03)Central RangesRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [scattered & uncommon]
2 of 2 subregionsFinkeRare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Lomandra]
Name derivation:
Lomandra from the Greek 'loma' meaning edge, border or fringe and 'andros' meaning a male; alluding to the circular margin of the anthers in some species. Leucocephala from Greek meaning white head; alluding to the colour of the flower spike. Robusta from Latin meaning well developed or robust.
Distribution:
Found in the southern Part of South Australia, from the Nullarbor to the upper South-east, with scattered collections from the north-west, growing on upper slopes and crests of sand dunes and under mallee. Also found in all mainland states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Robust iron-grass to 60 cm high. Leaves to 80 cm long and 4 mm wide, flat or somewhat channelled. Leaf sheath margins short, yellowish to orange-brown, the fragments few, woolly or fibrous. Flowers sessile in dense ovoid heads or thick cylindrical spikes, to 5 cm long and 2 cm thick, enclosing the straight rigid unbranched stem, head of spikes with a white-woolly appearance. Flowering between April and August.
Fruit type:
Ovoid to globular capsule.
Seed type:
Brown, rounded wedge shaped seed to 6 mm long and 4 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Linear underdeveloped.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature fruits, turning brown with a hard seed inside or when they are starting to split.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has morphophysiological dormancy and can take several weeks to germinate.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-1550%42 d94 d dry heat 50°C oven 24h, 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 72 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Jul-1544%42 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 72 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Jul-1538%NANA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse;
1% agar;
12/12;  /  15°C
Jul-1526%42 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, aerated water 72 h, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 72 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Jul-1522%35 dNA 3% hydrogen peroxide 72 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Sep-148%63 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse,dry heat 35°C oven for 6 weeks with one 24 h wet cycle per week, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Sep-142%84 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water for 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-142%42 dNA 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Mar-140%NANA leached in water 24 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Sep-140%NANA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Sep-140%NANA dry heat 90°C oven 15 min, 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water for 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Sep-140%NANA dry heat 90°C oven 15 min, 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Sep-140%NANA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, dry heat 35°C oven for 6 weeks, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)