Seeds of South Australia
Lomandra multiflora ssp. dura (Liliaceae)
List of species for Lomandra
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Seed collecting:
December to January
Herbarium regions:
Lake Eyre, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern   [hardy sp]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern   [hardy sp]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Lomandra]
Name derivation:
Lomandra from the Greek 'loma' meaning edge, border or fringe and 'andros' meaning a male; alluding to the circular margin of the anthers in some species. Multiflora from the Latin 'multus' meaning many and 'floris' meaning flower. Dura from Latin meaning hard, tough or durable; referring to the tough bracts.
Endemic to South Australia and found mainly in the Flinders and Mount Lofty Ranges, growing in open woodlands and temperate grasslands.
Native. Common in South Australia.
Plant description:
Iron grass with rigid glaucous leaves to 60 cm long and 4 mm wide. Male and female flowers occurring on the same plant (monoecious). Male flowers with  pedicels to 4 mm long, females sessile. Clusters of flowers grow along an erect spreading panicle to 30 cm long.
Fruit type:
Ovoid to globular capsule to 6 mm across, dark purple-black when mature.
Seed type:
Yellow to brown, rounded wedge shaped seed to 5 mm long and 3 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Linear underdeveloped.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature fruits, turning purple-black with a hard seed inside or when they are starting to split.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability were high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has morphophysiological dormancy and can take several weeks to germinate. Germination was enhanced by treatment with diluted smoke water.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA2300 (28.15 g)124-Jan-2006DJD336
Southern Lofty
BGA3900 (40.69 g)250+31-Dec-2005KHB041
Southern Lofty
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Mar-1593%28 d49 d 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 10% smoke water for 24 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Mar-1478%28 d49 d leached in water 24 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Mar-1575%2849 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Mar-1513%28 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water 72 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Mar-1512%28 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid for 72 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Mar-1410%28 dNA 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
moist sand;
12/12;  /  15°C
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)