Seeds of South Australia
Lycium australe (Solanaceae)
Australian Boxthorn
List of species for Lycium
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Seed collecting:
November to February
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [a few scattered pops at Hartley, Waitpinga, Wirrinna; no recruitment; often mistaken for African boxthrorn & sprayed]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [a few scattered pops; Hallett Cove, Gawler, few others; often mistaken for African boxthrorn & sprayed]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Data Deficient   [no vouchered records]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Near Threatened
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Near Threatened   [not typical habitat]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Least Concern
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Least Concern
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Near Threatened   [edge of range]
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Carlisle (NUL01)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02) 
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03) 
 Least Concern
Hampton (HAM01)Hampton
 Least Concern
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern
Bimbowrie (BHC05) 
 Least Concern
Warriner (SSD04)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Baltana (STP07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Data Deficient
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooEndangered
  (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [a few scattered pops at Hartley, Waitpinga, Wirrinna; no recruitment; often mistaken for African boxthrorn & sprayed]
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Endangered
, Data Deficient
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaNear Threatened
  [not typical habitat]
8 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
3 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
3 of 3 subregionsNullarborLeast Concern
Hampton (HAM01)HamptonLeast Concern
2 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
Warriner (SSD04)Simpson Strzelecki DunefieldsRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))
2 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
, Rare
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel CountryData Deficient
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Lycium]
Name derivation:
Lycium from the Greek 'lykion', the name of a medicinal thorny shrub believe to be a native of Lycia (Asia Minor). Australe means of or from the south; referring to the distribution of the species in Australia.
Distribution:
Found across the central part of South Australia, growing in open arid shrublands, mallee and woodland, often in depressions in sub-saline, usually clayey soils. Also found in Western Australia, New South Wales and Victoria,
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Intricately branched shrub to 2.5 m high with rigid branches with lateral branches leafy and often ending in a spine. Leaves usually clustered, oblanceolate to ellipsoid, to 25 mm long and 3 mm wide, fleshy, glabrous, grey-green. Inflorescence solitary in axils with creamy white to lilac flowers. Flowering mostly during spring and summer.
Fruit type:
Orange-red ovoid berry to 8 mm long and 5 mm wide.
Seed type:
Flat ovoid to circular dull yellow seed to 2.5 mm long and 2 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Linear fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect berries that are ripe, orange-red with soft flesh and numerous hard yellow seeds inside.
Seed cleaning:
Place the berries in a bucket of water and rub with your hands to separate the seeds from the flesh. Wash the mixture with clean water and drain. Place the mixture on paper towel and leave to dry overnight. Then rub the dried material by hand to remove any remaining flesh from the seeds. Use a sieve to remove the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 90%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
7000 (9.615 g)
7000 (9.615 g)
100+10-Nov-2005MKJ123
Gairdner-Torrens
9-Aug-200690%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Mar-1488%7 d7 d leached in water 24 h, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-1484%7 d7 d leached in water 24 h, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Mar-1476%7 d21 d leached in water 24 h, 200 mg/L potassium nitrate 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-1468%7 d14 d leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-1468%14 d21 d
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-1448%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Mar-1432%14 dNA leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Mar-1418%14 dNA leached in water 24 h, 200 mg/L potassium nitrate 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)