Seeds of South Australia
Adriana quadripartita (Euphorbiaceae)
Coast Bitter-bush
List of species for Adriana
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Seed collecting:
November to April
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Data Deficient   [unlikely record/location]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern   [undercollected; tolerates disturbance]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Near Threatened   [undercollected; lots of regeneration in some areas]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [little regeneration seen; urbanisation a threat]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Definite Decline)
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [Coastal distribution. Coastal development a threat.]
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Definite Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [should be more records ]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Least Concern   [increases with disturbance]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria Desert
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill Complex
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
IBRA regions
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
, Rare
, Data Deficient
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
3 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockRare
, Vulnerable
4 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
2 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02)GawlerRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria DesertRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
2 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexRare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Adriana]
Name derivation:
Adriana named after Adrien-Henri de Jussieu (1797-1853), a French botanist . Quadripartita from the Latin 'quadri' meaning four and 'partita' meaning parts, referring to the calyx with 4 sepals.
Found in coastal regions of South Australia in sandy soil often associated with calcrete, in open or disturbed coastal areas. Uncommon on the West Coast of South Australia. Also found in Western Australia and Victoria.
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other States.
Plant description:
Erect open, much branched shrub to 3 m high. Leaves opposite, subsessile, lanceolate to 8 cm long and 20 mm wide. Separate male and female plants. Inflorescence a spike, male reddish, 25 flowered to 10 cm long; female first red then yellowish-green, 3-5 flowered to 5 cm long. Calyx of 4 ovate-lanceolate sepals yellow to green to 6 mm long and 2.5 mm wide . Flowers between June and February.
Fruit type:
Brown ovoid capsule to 10 mm long.
Seed type:
Brown or mottled brown, ovoid seed to 5 mm long and 3 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect ripe fruits when they become dull in colour and seeds are mature, hard. Keep a close eye on maturing fruit as it will open and release the seeds quickly.
Seed cleaning:
Place the fruits in a paper bag and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks, until they split. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
Seed viability can be variable and seeds are prone to predation. From two collections, the seed viability was average, ranging from 65% to 72%.
Seed germination:
This species has physiological dormancy that needs to be overcome for the seed to germinate.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
550 (12.73 g)
1040 (23.73 g)
Southern Lofty
BGA860 (23.34 g)50+30-Jan-2013JRG49
South Eastern
27-Feb-2014 (Xray 0.78)-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Aug-1360%15 d46 d
1% agar with 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Aug-1360%15 d29 d
1% agar with 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid;
Incubated under summer conditions
Aug-1348%22 dNA
1% agar with 500 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Aug-1348%15 dNA
1% agar with 500 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under summer conditions
Feb-1348%14 dNA
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Feb-1320%28 dNA seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Aug-1316%15 dNA
1% agar with 500 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
12/12;  /  20°C
Aug-138%8 dNA
1% agar with 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid;
12/12;  /  20°C
Feb-138%28 dNA
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Feb-130%NANA hot water (100°C) 1 min;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)