Seeds of South Australia
Lycopodium deuterodensum (Lycopodiaceae)
Bushy Club-moss
List of species for Lycopodium
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Herbarium region:
Southern Lofty
NRM region:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges
IBRA region
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv); D)   (Probable Decline)   [very small pop in Mt Lofties; clonal, could be only 1 plant; vulnerable to disease]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Lycopodium]
Name derivation:
Lycopodium from the Greek 'lycos' meaning wolf and 'podion' meaning foot; referring to the leaves or the roots which resemble a wolf's claws. Deuterodensum from the Greek 'deuteros' meaning second and Latin 'densa' meaning dense; possible referring to the dense overlapping leaves.
Found in one location in the southern Mount Lofty Ranges in South Australia, growing on steep hill slopes over sandstone and quartzite on the edge of a gully swamp within open stringybark forest with a dense understorey of bracken, sedges, shrubs, herbs and grasses. Also found in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania (and New Zealand, New Caledonia).
Native. Very rare in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Small perennial clubmoss to 0.5 m high. Grows from an underground rhizome which are much-branched and deeply buried with aerial stems erect, rigid, repeatedly branched to produce bushy plant. Leaves spirally arranged, overlapping in all but main stem and coarser branches, either ovate to 2.5 mm long clasping the stems or linear-lanceolate and spreading to 4 mm long. Strobili (a cone-like structure consisting of sporophylls) numerous, erect and terminal on minor branches to 20 mm long, producing spores during wetter periods of the year. Regrows from rhizome after fire.
Fruit type:
Pale brown closely overlapping sporophylls, broad-ovate, abruptly pointed, with jagged margins, spreading when ripe, at terminal of stems.
Seed type:
Fine spores.
Seed collecting:
Collect strobili that are turning brown, these will contain mature sporohylls with spores. Place them in a seal paper bag to prevent spores from fulling out.
Seed cleaning:
Leave fronds in the paper bag to dry. The spores will fall off naturally or give the fronds a gentle shake. Use a very fine sieve to separate any unwanted material. Be careful as the spores are very fine. Store spores in an air tight container in a cool and dry place or in a -20oC freezer.
Seed germination:
Spores germinate rapidly without any treatment but can be difficult to maintain for any length of time in cultivation as it grows with a mycorrhizal association, and generally resent disturbance and once established should not be disturbed.