Seeds of South Australia
Melaleuca uncinata (Myrtaceae)
Broom Honey-myrtle
List of species for Melaleuca
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Lucindale (NCP03)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern   [undercollected ]
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [highly restricted & isolated natural pops in Sandy Ck, Barossa Reservoir, Para Wirra; threat from indiscriminate spraying by SA Water]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Data Deficient   [Many records not databased]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern   [Many records not databased]
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Near Threatened   [Gammon Ranges, limited habitat]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern   [Many records not databased]
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Data Deficient   [Many records not databased]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern   [has been a name change; lots of NC records]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern   [has been a name change; lots of NC records]
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
2 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Vulnerable
, Data Deficient
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Data Deficient
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Melaleuca]
Name derivation:
Melaleuca from the Greek 'melas' meaning black and 'leucon' meaning white; alluding to the contrasting colours of the bark of the first species described, which is said to have had white branches against a black trunk. Uncinata from the Latin 'uncinatus' meaning bearing hooks or barbed; referring to the shape of the leaf apex.
Distribution:
Found in the southern part of South Australia from the Eyre Peninsula to the upper South-east, growing in mallee, woodland and dry sclerophyll forest, usually on sandy soils. Also found in all mainland states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Rare in the Northern Territory. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Broom-like shrub 3 m high, glabrous except for the hairy young shoots, leaves and young fruit. Leaves alternate, terete, to 6 cm long and 1 mm diameter, tapering at the apex to a curved point, punctate. Inflorescence in dense axillary globular or oblong heads  with white or yellowish flowers. Flowers in spring. 
Fruit type:
Grey-brown woody capsule to 2.5 mm diameter, compressed-hexagonal in dense clusters at the bases of woody branches. 
Seed type:
Tiny brown ovoid seed to 0.8 mm long and 0.4 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Folded.
Seed collecting:
Collect capsules that are large and hard with closed valves.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for at least two weeks or until all the valves are open. Then place all the capsules into a bucket with a lid if possible and shake hard to dislodge the seeds from the capsules. Use a sieve to separate the seeds from the capsules. The fine material will contain the seeds and other flowering material. It is very difficult to separate the seeds from this other material as the size, shape and weight are very similar. However the seeds will be a darker brown. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were high, ranging from 85% to 100%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
175000 (2.65 g)
175000
1524-Sep-2003PJA 30
Eyre Peninsula
1-Sep-2004100%+5°C, -18°C
BGA63605 (3.01 g)25-Jan-2004ERT10
Kangaroo Island
14-Aug-2006-18°C
BGA12356 (1.0874 g)116-Sep-2003PJA 22
Murray
14-Aug-2006-18°C
BGA10757 (2.1687 g)25-Jan-2004ERT8
Kangaroo Island
14-Aug-2006-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jun-0490%24 d36 d 20% hydrogen peroxide 10 min, water rinse;
1% agar;
8/16;  /  20°C
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)