Seeds of South Australia
Zygophyllum aurantiacum ssp. aurantiacum (Zygophyllaceae)
Shrubby Twinleaf
List of species for Zygophyllum
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Seed collecting:
October to February
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Data Deficient   [outlier, odd record]
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Data Deficient   [(no records) 1 old record known]
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Data Deficient   [occurs on roadsides]
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Data Deficient   [occurs on roadsides]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Data Deficient   [occurs on roadsides]
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Near Threatened
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [Coastal development a threat.]
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [Coastal development a threat.]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Data Deficient   [occurs on roadsides]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Least Concern
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Least Concern
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Least Concern
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Least Concern
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03) 
 Least Concern
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Data Deficient   [occurs on roadsides]
Dieri (SSD03)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Least Concern
Warriner (SSD04) 
 Least Concern
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Least Concern
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04) 
 Least Concern
Macumba (STP05) 
 Least Concern
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Least Concern
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal PlainData Deficient
  [outlier, odd record]
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooData Deficient
  [(no records) 1 old record known]
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Data Deficient
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Data Deficient
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaLeast Concern
8 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
2 of 3 subregionsNullarborLeast Concern
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill ComplexData Deficient
  [occurs on roadsides]
3 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
7 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
2 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryLeast Concern
Watarru (CER02)Central RangesLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Zygophyllum]
Name derivation:
Zygophyllum from the Greek 'zygon' meaning pair and 'phyllon' meaning leaf; referring to the pair of leaflets making up each leaf. Aurantiacum from the Latin 'aurantiacus' meaning yellow-orange.
Distribution:
Found across South Australia except on Kangaroo Island and in the South-East, growing in a variety of habitats and on different soils. Also found in all mainland states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
A perennial, woody and bushy shrub that may grow to 1 m high and 1 m wide. Leaves are linear, fleshy and 'Y'-shaped with large yellow flowers. This subspecies differ from the other three subspecies found in South Australia, by having leaves with distinct petioles and leaflets, flat, narrow-oblong to linear, about as long as the linear petiole. Flowering between July and October.
Fruit type:
Yellow-brown round, four segmented capsule with paper wings. Each segment contains one seed.
Seed type:
Pale brown wedge-shaped seeds to 5 mm long and 3 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect semi-dried and dried capsules by running your hands through the stems of the plant. Mature fruits will come off easily and will have a hard and dark seed inside each segment.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the greeness of the fruit. Then rub the dried capsules to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to remove the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 90%.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Aug-1566%7 d14 d 30% hydrogen peroxide 10 min, water rinse;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Aug-1562%7 d14 d seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Aug-1522%7 dNA 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Aug-1518%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Aug-150%NANA leached in water 7 d;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)