Seeds of South Australia
Acacia pycnantha (Leguminosae)
Golden wattle
List of species for Acacia
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Seed collecting:
November to January
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Least Concern   [5-10yr lifespan; increases after fire then stabilises]
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern   [5-10yr lifespan; increases after fire then stabilises]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Least Concern   [5-10yr lifespan; increases after fire then stabilises]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern   [5-10yr lifespan; increases after fire then stabilises]
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern   [5-10yr lifespan; increases after fire then stabilises]
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern   [possibly increasing]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern   [possibly increasing]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [northern edge of range]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1)   (Probable Decline)   [Calca site is a vulnerable outlier. Coastal records prob leiophylla]
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern   [likes fire]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Least Concern   [5-10yr lifespan; increases after fire then stabilises]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern   [likes fire]
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Least Concern   [5-10yr lifespan; increases after fire then stabilises]
Gawler Lakes (GAW03)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainLeast Concern
  [5-10yr lifespan; increases after fire then stabilises]
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Vulnerable
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03)GawlerRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Acacia]
Name derivation:
Acacia from the Greek 'akakia' and derived from 'ake' or 'akis' meaning a sharp point or thorn and 'akazo' meaning to sharpen. Dioscorides, the Greek physician and botanist used the word in the 1st century AD for the Egyptian thorn tree, Acacia arabica. Pycnantha from the Greek 'pycna' meaning thick, dense, compact and 'anthos' meaning flowers.
Distribution:
Found in the wetter part of South Australia, south of the Flinders Ranges. Also found in New South Wales and Victoria. Introduced to Tasmania and Western Australia.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other States.
Plant description:
An erect small tree to 8 m high, usually with a rough dark brown to black bark, (or a smooth whitish-grey bark in the northern population). Leaves are large, lance-shaped and bright green. Flowers are contained within yellow-balls, appearing in winter and spring.
Fruit type:
Long, straight, brown pod to 12 cm long and 7 mm wide.
Seed type:
Black semi-flat ovoid seeds to 10 mm long and 3 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Investing.
Seed collecting:
Collect pods that are turning brown, with hard, dark seeds inside. For immediate propagation, the seeds can be collected prior to the seedcoat hardening.
Seed cleaning:
Place the pods in a tray and leave to dry for 1-2 weeks or until the pods begin to split. Then rub the dried pods to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has physical dormancy that needs to be overcome for the seed to germinate (e.g. nicking or softening the seed coat).
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
4700 (94.7 g)
6850 (135 g)
40-5013-Dec-2004DJD 85
Southern Lofty
31-Mar-2006100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Aug-05100%9 d13 d seed coat nicked with scalpel;
filter paper over moist sponge;
12/12;  /  20°C
Sep-14100%7 d7 d seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Sep-14100%7 d14 d seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under summer conditions
Sep-14100%7 d7 d seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-1598%7 d7 d seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-1596%7 d7 d seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Aug-0584%9 d42 d hot water (100°C) 20 s;
filter paper over moist sponge;
12/12;  /  20°C
Aug-0568%11 d50 d hot water (100°C) 2min;
filter paper over moist sponge;
12/12;  /  20°C
Aug-0564%11 d50 d hot water (86°C) 20 s;
filter paper over moist sponge;
12/12;  /  20°C
Aug-0564%11 d50 d hot water (93°C) 20 s;
filter paper over moist sponge;
12/12;  /  20°C
Aug-0562%25 d50 d hot water (86°C) 2 min;
filter paper over moist sponge;
12/12;  /  20°C
Aug-0562%25 d50 d hot water (93°C) 3 s;
filter paper over moist sponge;
12/12;  /  20°C
Aug-0558%21 d61 d hot water (100°C) 3 s;
filter paper over moist sponge;
12/12;  /  20°C
Aug-0552%25 d61 d hot water (78°C) 2min;
filter paper over moist sponge;
12/12;  /  20°C
Aug-0552%16 d61 d hot water (93°C) 2 min;
filter paper over moist sponge;
12/12;  /  20°C
Aug-0548%25 dNA hot water (86°C) 3 s;
filter paper over moist sponge;
12/12;  /  20°C
Aug-0546%25 dNA hot water (78°C) 20 s;
filter paper over moist sponge;
12/12;  /  20°C
Mar-1536%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Sep-1428%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Mar-1522%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Sep-1421%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Sep-1418%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under summer conditions
Aug-0514%21 dNA hot water (78°C) 3 s;
filter paper over moist sponge;
12/12;  /  20°C
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)