Seeds of South Australia
Nicotiana burbidgeae (Solanaceae)
Dalhousie Springs Tobacco-bush
List of species for Nicotiana
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Seed collecting:
September to December
Herbarium region:
Lake Eyre
NRM region:
South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA region
Witjira (STP06)Stony Plains
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [endemic to SA]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Nicotiana]
Name derivation:
Nicotiana named after Jean Nicot (1530-1600), a French Ambassador for the King of France to Lisbon in 1560, who sent the first tobacco plant to France. Burbidgeae named after Miss Nancy Tyson Burbidge (1912-1977), for her contributions to taxonomic botany in Australia.
Endemic to South Australia and found only in the south-east end of the Dalhousie Springs complex in Witjira National Park, growing along arid creeklines that may be subsaline and gypseous.
Native. Rare in South Australia.
Plant description:
Erect leafy annual or short lived perennial herb to at 75 cm high, covered in hairs and with several branches near base. Leaves mostly cauline, basal ones to 10 cm long and 7 cm wide, oval, apex obtuse, base broadly attached, leaves of the middle stem region smaller, rather more obovate, gradually decreasing in size upwards, all rather thick and relatively fleshy. Inflorescence of solitary white tubular flowers distributed along upper parts of leafy stems. Flowering between June and September. 
Fruit type:
Papery brown ovate capsule to12 mm long, about equal to enveloping calyx, splitting by 2 major and 2 minor fissures.
Seed type:
Dark brown reniform seed to 1.2 mm long and 0.8 mm wide, covered in a net-like surface.
Embryo type:
Linear fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsules, those that brown or turning a pale yellow straw colour and contain brown seeds. Can collect individual capsules or break off the whole fruit spike. Capsules that are open may still contain good quantity of seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability were high, ranging form 90% to 100%.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-1796%1414 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1792%1414 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1673%7 d7 d 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 20 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1643%7 dNA 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 20 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)