Seeds of South Australia
Nicotiana excelsior (Solanaceae)
Giant Tobacco
List of species for Nicotiana
Display more images
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
September to November
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
Northern Flinders (FLB05)Flinders Lofty Block
 Data Deficient   [old record]
Kintore (GVD04)Great Victoria Desert
 Near Threatened
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Data Deficient
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Data Deficient   [old record]
Witjira (STP06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02) 
 Near Threatened
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Least Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Near Threatened
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Nicotiana]
Name derivation:
Nicotiana named after Jean Nicot (1530-1600), a French Ambassador for the King of France to Lisbon in 1560, who sent the first tobacco plant to France. Excelsior from the Latin 'excelsa' meaning tall; referring to its habit.
Distribution:
Found in the north-west part of South Australia, near the Northern Territory border, growing in rocky gullies and creeklines. Also found in Western Australia and the Northern Territory.
Status:
Native. Uncommon in South Australia. Uncommon in the other states.
Plant description:
Leafy annual or perrenial herb to 1 m high or more with mostly glabrous leaves and stems. Basal leaves elliptic or ovate to 25 cm long with short broadly-winged stem-clasping petioles. Stem leaves often narrow-elliptic or lanceolate. Inflorescence an erect few branching panicle-spikes, sparsely hairy, with tubular white flowers. Flowering between April to September.
Fruit type:
Brown ellipsoid to ovoid capsule to 20 mm long.
Seed type:
Brown reniform seed to 0.1 mm long and 0.7 mm wide, covered in small depressions.
Embryo type:
Linear fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsules, those that are brown or turning a pale straw colour and contain brown seeds. Can collect individual capsules or break off the whole fruit spike.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA30500 (4.97 g)30+4-Sep-2013MJT438
North Western
24-Mar-2015100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Sep-1492%7 d7 d 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Sep-1490%7 d7 d 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Sep-144%7 dN/A d
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Sep-144%7 dN/A d
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)