Seeds of South Australia
Nicotiana velutina (Solanaceae)
Velvet Tobacco
List of species for Nicotiana
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Seed collecting:
May, September to November
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Murray
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1+2)
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   (Probable Decline)   [red sands, rocky]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Talia (EYB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Near Threatened
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Near Threatened
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Least Concern
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Near Threatened
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Carlisle (NUL01)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02) 
 Least Concern
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern
Barrier Range Outwash (BHC04) 
 Least Concern
Bimbowrie (BHC05) 
 Least Concern
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Least Concern
Simpson Desert (SSD02)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Least Concern
Dieri (SSD03) 
 Least Concern
Warriner (SSD04) 
 Least Concern
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Least Concern
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04) 
 Least Concern
Macumba (STP05) 
 Least Concern
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Least Concern
Diamantina-Eyre (CHC04) 
 Least Concern
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Least Concern
Lake Pure (CHC07) 
 Least Concern
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02) 
 Near Threatened
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Least Concern
Pedirka (FIN04) 
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Vulnerable
4 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockRare
, Endangered
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionNear Threatened
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaNear Threatened
  (Probable Decline)
8 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
3 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
2 of 3 subregionsNullarborLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
7 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryLeast Concern
2 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
2 of 2 subregionsFinkeLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Nicotiana]
Name derivation:
Nicotiana named after Jean Nicot (1530-1600), a French Ambassador for the King of France to Lisbon in 1560, who sent the first tobacco plant to France. Velutina from the Latin 'velutinus' meaning velvety; alluding to the velvety hairs covering the plant.
Distribution:
Found across much of South Australia, except on Kangaroo island, Yorke Peninsula, Mount Lofty Ranges and the South-east, growing on sand dunes and river sand banks. Also found in all mainland states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Uncommon in Western Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Erect herb to 1.5 m high covered with velvety hairs. Leaves radical and cauline or mostly radical, elliptic, mostly to 20 cm long and to 8 cm wide,  upper ones lanceolate or linear. Inflorescence an erect panicle-like spike with tubular white flowers. Flowering between April and November.
Fruit type:
Brown ellipsoid to ovoid capsule to 11 mm long.
Seed type:
Brown reniform seed to 0.8 mm long and 0.5 mm wide, covered in small depression.
Embryo type:
Linear fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsules, those that are brown or turning a pale straw colour and contain brown seeds. Can collect individual capsules or break off the whole fruit spike.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From five collections, the seed viability were high, ranging from 90% to 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
58769 (7.64 g)
59000 (7.68 g)
>20022-Oct-2004MOL 4537
Gairdner-Torrens
28-Mar-2006100%-18°C
BGA 
MSB
20000 (3 g)
20000 (3 g)
50-6024-Nov-2005DJD233
Eastern
9-Aug-200690%-18°C
BGA 
MSB
8500 (1.1 g)
8500 (1.1 g)
100+9-Nov-2005MKJ122
Gairdner-Torrens
9-Aug-200695%-18°C
BGA45600 (5.28 g)507-May-2007RJB71512
Lake Eyre
19-Sep-2008100%-18°C
BGA98380 (9.74 g)6-Sep-2013DJD2713
Lake Eyre
24-Mar-2015100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Sep-14100%7 d7 d 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Sep-1472%7 d7 d 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Sep-1412%7 dN/A d
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Sep-144%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)