Seeds of South Australia
Olearia pannosa ssp. pannosa (Compositae)
Silver Daisy-bush
List of species for Olearia
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Seed collecting:
October to December
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR D)   [slow germination]
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR D)   [(no records) T Horn knows of pop]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   [highly localised, in Big Heath, Desert Camp]
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   [checked by H Vonow, in rocky gully, 1 disjunct pop. ]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [endemic to SA; mainly in box woodland; likes heavy soils & limestone; small pops; bridal creeper a threat; clonal; LAP groups doing replanting]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   [endemic to SA; mainly in box woodland; likes heavy soils & limestone; small pops; bridal creeper a threat; clonal; LAP groups doing replanting; declining in Parawirra]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU C2a(i))   (Probable Decline)   [Fragmented populations]
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN C2a(i))   (Probable Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU C2a(i))   (Probable Decline)   [Fragmented populations]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN C2a(i))   (Probable Decline)   [Small fragmented populations, confined to roadsides and cemetaries.]
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN C2a(i))   (Probable Decline)   [Fragmented populations]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [potentially overrated; edge of range]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(ii,iii); D )   (Probable Decline)   [on roadsides around Goolwa, slow germinator]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainCritically Endangered
  (IUCN: CR D)   [slow germination]
3 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainVulnerable
, Endangered
, Critically Endangered
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooVulnerable
, Endangered
4 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockVulnerable
, Endangered
3 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockRare
, Endangered
2 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionVulnerable
, Endangered
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Olearia]
Name derivation:
Olearia named after Johann Gottfried Ölschläger (1603-1671), 17th century German horticulturist and author of a flora of Halle in Germany (his name was latinized to Olearius). Alternatively, it maybe from the Latin 'olearius' pertaining to oil, from 'olea', for olive tree; alluding to the first named species resembling the olive.
Distribution:
Endemic to South Australia and found scattered in the southern part using on road sides and with few individuals.
Status:
Native. Rare in South Australia.
Plant description:
Spreading undershrub or shrub to 1.5m high, producing root suckers. Stems woody at least at the base, branched with appressed hairs. Leaves with petioles to 15mm long, broad-ovate to elliptic, acute to shallowly cordate at the base, acute to obtuse at the apex, to 9cm long and 5cm wide, prominently reticulate-veined, dark green and shiny above and white- to rusty-tomentose below with margins flat. Flower head solitary, terminal and in the upper leaf axils, on long stalk to 30cm long often with 1 or 2 reduced leaves. Flowers large, white rarely pale-mauve daisy with a yellow centre.
Fruit type:
Large fluffy daisy heads containing numerous seeds.
Seed type:
Striated, semi-flat, brown to dark red achenes to 8mm long and 2mm wide covered in white hairs and with a pale yellow pappus bristles to 10mm long.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect heads that are large and fluffy. Either pick off the whole heads or use your finger and pull off the seeds from the head. Mature seeds will come off easily.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray for a week to dry. No cleaning is required if only pure seeds are collected. If heads are collected, then rub the heads gently with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Viable seeds will be fat and hard. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From twelve collections, the seed viability were low to average, ranging from 15% to 70%. Seeds can be heavily predated. Viable seeds should be fat, hard and a dark red brown colour.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA2250 (14.5 g)~4018-Nov-2004DJD 37
Southern Lofty
31-Mar-2006Not Tested-18°C
BGA1650 (10.67 g)~301-Dec-2004DJD 55
South Eastern
31-Mar-2006Not Tested-18°C
BGA 
MSB
1065 (6.85 g)
1400 (9 g)
~401-Dec-2004DJD 56
South Eastern
31-Mar-200670%-18°C
BGA11900 (50.1 g)30+30-Dec-2005KHB033
Flinders Ranges
14-Sep-200615%+5°C, -18°C
BGA4000 (2.91 g)6-Dec-2005CSO1
Southern Lofty
14-Sep-200615%+5°C, -18°C
BGA1600 (8.31 g)12-Dec-2005TJ3
Yorke Peninsula
14-Sep-200615%+5°C, -18°C
6-Dec-2005CSO3
Southern Lofty
14-Sep-200630%+5°C, -18°C
BGA5500 (28.88 g)23-Nov-2005CSO2
Murray
14-Sep-200665%+5°C, -18°C
BGA1100 (3.06 g)418-Oct-2006DJD602
Yorke Peninsula
1-Aug-200715%-18°C
BGA2800 (10.85 g)18-Oct-2006DJD572
Yorke Peninsula
1-Aug-200765%+5°C, -18°C
BGA5000 (22.42 g)317-Oct-2006DJD595
Yorke Peninsula
1-Aug-200745%+5°C, -18°C
BGA 
MSB
290 (1.83 g)
GROWN
718-Oct-2004PJA 84
Southern Lofty
GROWN
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-1687%14 d28 d 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jun-1282%18 d18 d
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jun-1278%18 d18 d
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jun-1276%18 d18 d
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1670%21 d28 d leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jun-1270%18 d18 d
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under winter conditions
Jun-1256%18 d18 d
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jun-1242%18 dNA
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1627%21 dNA 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1620%35 dNA leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Mar-1510%14 dNA 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-158%14 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Mar-156%14 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-152%14 dNA 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Mar-150%NANA 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under summer conditions
Mar-150%NANA
1% agar;
Incubated under summer conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)