Seeds of South Australia
Allocasuarina helmsii (Casuarinaceae)
Smooth-cone Oak-bush
List of species for Allocasuarina
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Gairdner-Torrens, Eyre Peninsula
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
Eyre Hills (EYB03)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [likes rich soils, grazing a threat]
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [restricted]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [highly localised; likes good soils]
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Hampton (HAM01)Hampton
 Least Concern   [no records (1 moved frm NU)]
Watarru (CER02)Central Ranges
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [highly localised; likes good soils]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Allocasuarina]
Name derivation:
Allocasuarina from the Greek 'allos' meaning other or different, indicating the relationship with the genus Casuarina (first used by Rumphius (1743) in allusion to the supposed resemblance of the "foliage" of Casuarina equisetifolia to the plumage of the Cassowary, which is from the Malay 'kesuari', later being latinised as Casuarius). Helmsii may be named in honour of Richard Helms (1842-1914), zoologist, botanist and collector for the Australian Museum in Sydney.
Distribution:
Found in the western part of South Australia, from the upper Eyre Peninsula to the north-west corner, growing on red sand and sandy clay. Also found in Western Australia.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in Western Australia.
Plant description:
Dioecious shrub to 3 m high with terete, smooth waxy stem. Article (stem segment) to 6 mm long and 0.9 mm diameter with 5 or 6 teeth (reduced leaves) around the end. Male spikes to 15 mm long, slender with 9-11 whorls per cm. Female flower red-brown.
Fruit type:
Large woody cylindrical cone to 3 cm long, with numerous valves.
Seed type:
Orange-brown smooth and semi-flat seeds to 8 mm long with a papery wing at one end.
Embryo type:
Investing.
Seed collecting:
Cones can be collected anytime as mature cones remain on the female plant. Collect more mature cones that have closed valves, from the lower part of the stem.
Seed cleaning:
Place cones in a tray and leave to dry for 2-3 weeks. This will allow the valves to dry and open releasing the seeds. Place the dried cones in a bucket and shake gently to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate seeds from the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was low, at 50%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
10107
10107
105-Dec-2003PJA 58
North Western
1-Sep-200450%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
March 201094%7d17d Stored at -18°C (5years)
1% w/v agar
Incubated under winter conditions
August 200683%13d20d Stored at -18°C (1year)
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge. Irrigated with RO water
Incubated under winter conditions
August 200675%13d27d Stored at -18°C (1year)
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge. Irrigated with RO water
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
July 200461%15d19d Seed sterilised with 20% Hydrogen Peroxide with 2 drops of Tween (10min). Rinsed in sterile water.
0.8% w/v agar plates
14/10 dark/light  /  10°C/20°C
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)