Seeds of South Australia
Ozothamnus pholidotus (Compositae)
Scaly Bush-everlasting
List of species for Ozothamnus
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Seed collecting:
January to March
Herbarium regions:
Murray, South Eastern
NRM regions:
South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [persists for a long time; episodic after fire]
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [not found in recent surveys]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii); D)   (Probable Decline)   [requires fire regeneration]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Ozothamnus]
Name derivation:
Ozothamnus from the Greek 'ozo' meaning to smell and 'thamnos' meaning shrub; alluding to the fragrant foliage when crushed. Pholidotus from the Greek 'pholidoros' meaning scaly; referring to the branchlets covered with scale-like leaves.
Found in the upper South-east and lower Murray region in South Australia, growing in mallee and heath on richer soils, often in association with Eucalyptus leucoxylon. Also found in Victoria.
Native. Rare in South Australia. Uncommon in Victoria. More locally common after a bush fire.
Plant description:
Glabrous erect shrub to 1.5 m high. Dense flexible branchlets covered with imbricate scale like leaves. Leaves lanceolate, subacute to 4 mm long, bright green. Inflorescence a dense hemispherical corymb to 40 mm wide with 4-6 florets that are white to dull cream, corolla yellow. Flowering between September and December.
Fruit type:
Dense creamy brown heads.
Seed type:
Brown narrowly cylindrical seed to 1.5 mm long and 0.5 mm wide, covered sparely with short white hairs.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature seed heads, those turning a creamy-brown.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for 1-2 weeks. Then rub the heads gently with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 95%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA6000 (0.86 g)40+7-Jan-2011TST1106
South Eastern
1-Jan-201295%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
May-1146%26 dNA
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under winter conditions
May-1127%33 dNA
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-1117%33 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-116%26 dNA
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-112%39 dNA humidity chamber 40% RH 10 months (dark, summer);
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under winter conditions
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)