Seeds of South Australia
Ozothamnus pholidotus (Compositae)
Scaly Bush-everlasting
List of species for Ozothamnus
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Seed collecting:
January to March
Herbarium regions:
Murray, South Eastern
NRM regions:
South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [persists for a long time; episodic after fire]
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [not found in recent surveys]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii); D)   (Probable Decline)   [requires fire regeneration]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Ozothamnus]
Name derivation:
Ozothamnus from the Greek 'ozo' meaning to smell and 'thamnos' meaning shrub; alluding to the fragrant foliage when crushed. Pholidotus from the Greek 'pholidoros' meaning scaly; referring to the branchlets covered with scale-like leaves.
Distribution:
Found in the upper South-east and lower Murray region in South Australia, growing in mallee and heath on richer soils, often in association with Eucalyptus leucoxylon. Also found in Victoria.
Status:
Native. Rare in South Australia. Uncommon in Victoria. More locally common after a bush fire.
Plant description:
Glabrous erect shrub to 1.5 m high. Dense flexible branchlets covered with imbricate scale like leaves. Leaves lanceolate, subacute to 4 mm long, bright green. Inflorescence a dense hemispherical corymb to 40 mm wide with 4-6 florets that are white to dull cream, corolla yellow. Flowering between September and December.
Fruit type:
Dense creamy brown heads.
Seed type:
Brown narrowly cylindrical seed to 1.5 mm long and 0.5 mm wide, covered sparely with short white hairs.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature seed heads, those turning a creamy-brown.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for 1-2 weeks. Then rub the heads gently with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 95%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA6000 (0.86 g)40+7-Jan-2011TST1106
South Eastern
1-Jan-201295%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
May-1146%26 dNA
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under winter conditions
May-1127%33 dNA
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-1117%33 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-116%26 dNA
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-112%39 dNA humidity chamber 40% RH 10 months (dark, summer);
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
May-110%NANA
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under winter conditions
May-110%NANA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)