Seeds of South Australia
Allittia cardiocarpa (Compositae)
Swamp Daisy
List of species for Allittia
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Seed collecting:
October to December
Herbarium region:
South Eastern
NRM region:
South East
IBRA regions
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [changes in water regime a potential threat]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [changes in water regime a potential threat]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04)Murray Darling Depression
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i))   (Probable Decline)   [highly localised, in Geegeela CP]
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(ii,iii,iv); D)   (Probable Decline)
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Allittia]
Name derivation:
Allittia commemorates William Allitt (1828 - 1893), who collected herbarium specimens, including the new lectotype specimen of Brachyscome cardiocarpa, in the south-west of Victoria while he was curator of the botanic gardens at Portland from the 1860s to the 1880s. Cardiocarpa from the Greek 'kardio' meaning heart and 'karpos' meaning fruit; referring to the shape of the achene.
Distribution:
Found only in the lower South-east in South Australia, growing in swampy areas, plants often being partly immersed in water and commonly associated with sedges and wetland. Also found in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Rare in South Australia. Rare in New South Wales. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
A perennial herb with round linear, basal leaves that dry off and re-shoot each year. Flowers are white, large and single, on a long stem up to 45 cm tall. Flowering between August and November.
Fruit type:
Large daisy-heads with numerous seeds, usually turning brown when maturing.
Seed type:
Flat orange to brown elliptical seeds to 2.5 mm long, with serrated wings around the margins..
Embryo type:
Spathulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Pick by hand mature heads that are turning brown and contain semi-hard, brown seed inside.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray to dry for 1-2 weeks. Then rub the heads gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the viability was high, ranging from 70% to 90%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
14800 (5.75 g)
13000 (5.05 g)
100+25-Oct-2006DJD632
South Eastern
1-Aug-200770%+5°C, -18°C
BGA1400 (0.56 g)3016-Nov-2010DJD2020
South Eastern
1-Jan-201290%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
March 200996%24d44d Stored at 5°C for 1 year.
Wet filter paper placed over river sand.
Incubated under winter conditions
August 201093%15d28d None.
1% water agar supplemented with 250mg/L GA3.
Incubated under winter conditions
August 201092%15d28d None.
1% water agar supplemented with 100mg/L KNO3.
Incubated under winter conditions
August 201090%15d21d None.
1% water agar.
Incubated under winter conditions
August 201089%15d28d None.
1% water agar supplemented with 10% smoke water.
Incubated under winter conditions
February 201081%7d21d None.
1% water agar.
Incubated under winter conditions
March 200980%20d56d Seeds stored at -18°C for 1 year.
Wet filter paper placed over river sand.
12 hours.  /  5°C (12hrs); 15°C (12hrs).
August 201054%21d50d None.
1% water agar supplemented with 250mg/L GA3.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
August 201050%15d42d None.
1% water agar.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
August 201032%15dNA None.
1% water agar supplemented with 100mg/L KNO3.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
August 201028%21dNA None.
1% water agar supplemented with 10% smoke water.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
August 201018%15dNA None.
1% water agar.
Incubated under summer conditions
August 201014%21dNA None.
1% water agar supplemented with 250mg/L GA3.
Incubated under summer conditions
August 20109%35dNA None.
1% water agar supplemented with 10% smoke water.
Incubated under summer conditions
August 20108%35dNA None.
1% water agar supplemented with 100mg/L KNO3.
Incubated under summer conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)