Seeds of South Australia
Persoonia juniperina (Proteaceae)
Prickly Geebung
List of species for Persoonia
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Seed collecting:
February to April
Herbarium regions:
Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, South East
IBRA regions
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Near Threatened   [scattered in small numbers]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Near Threatened   [not common in Mt Lofties]
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Persoonia]
Name derivation:
Persoonia named after Christiaan Hendrik Persoon (1755 -1837), a South African born Dutch botanist, mycologist and author of Synopsis plantarum. Juniperina means juniper-like referring to the species resembling plants from the genus Juniperus.
Distribution:
Found in the southern Mount Lofty Ranges and the South-east in South Australia, growing in heathlands and heathy woodlands. Also found in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Uncommon in New South Wales. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Erect to spreading spiky shrub to 2 m high with hairy young branches. Leaves alternate, linear, to 30 mm long and 1.5 mm wide, straight, rigid, pungent tip, bright green, glabrous to densely hairy when young. Inflorescence solitary, mostly in leaf-axils with yellow flowers. Flowering between December and February.
Fruit type:
Yellow-green to purplish fleshy ovoid fruit to 10 mm long and 8 mm wide.
Seed collecting:
Collect fruits that are maturing, starting to turn from green and hard to yellowish or purple and soft.
Seed cleaning:
Place the fruits in a bucket of water and rub the flesh off with your hands. Drain the water and wash again if required to remove all the flesh. Then spread the wet seeds on some paper towel and leave to dry. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
The viability of seed lots were increased by immersing seeds in water and removing the floating seeds. From two collections the viability of sinking seeds was 50% and 80%.  
Seed germination:

This species has physiological dormancy and is difficult to germinate. However, high levels of germination were observed after the woody endocarp was gently prised open along the fracture line to expose intact seeds. Germination levels were highest after treatment with gibberellic acid.

Germination research fro this species was supported by AMLR NRM in 2017.

Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Feb-1783%3556 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse, endocarps opened along fracture lines, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Feb-1755%35105 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse, endocarps opened along fracture lines, leached in water for 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Feb-1753%2896 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse, endocarps opened along fracture lines, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water for 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Feb-1715%63NA endocarps selected with no visible fracture lines, 30% hydrogen peroxide for 30 min, leached in water 16 h then dried, dry heat 90°C oven for 20 mins;
moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Feb-175%63NA endocarps selected with no visible fracture lines, 30% hydrogen peroxide for 30 min, leached in water 16 h then dried, dry heat 90°C oven for 20 mins, 10% smoke water for 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Feb-170%0NA endocarps selected with no visible fracture lines, 30% hydrogen peroxide for 30 min, leached in water 16 h then dried, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Feb-170%0NA endocarps selected with no visible fracture lines, 30% hydrogen peroxide for 30 min, leached in water 16 h then dried;
moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Feb-170%0NA endocarps selected with no visible fracture lines, 30% hydrogen peroxide for 30 min, leached in water 16 h then dried, 10% smoke water for 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)