Seeds of South Australia
Phyllangium distylis (Loganiaceae)
Tiny Mitrewort
List of species for Phyllangium
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Seed collecting:
September to November
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Murray, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [(no records)]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [drying climate a threat]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   (Probable Decline)   [only in Gum Lagoon; salinity, drying - threats]
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [undercollected; annual; overlooked]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)   [needs damp sand; weeds a threat]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)   [needs damp sand; weeds a threat]
Eyre Hills (EYB03)Eyre Yorke Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
Lowan Mallee (MDD04)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   (Probable Decline)   [limited habitat]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Phyllangium]
Name derivation:
Phylangium from the Greek 'phyllon' meaning a leaf and 'angion' meaning a vessel; referring to the foliaceous involucre surrounding the flowers. Distylis from the Greek 'di' meaning two and the Latin 'stylus' meaning style; referring to its split styles.
Found on the Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, southern Mount Lofty Ranges and the South-east in South Australia, growing in wet sandy flats in open-heath and woodlands and in waterlogged soils or in shallow water. Also found in Victoria and Tasmania.
Native. Rare in South Australia. Rare in Tasmania. Common in Victoria.
Plant description:
Tiny erect slender annual herb to 5 cm high (terrestrial form) or 15 cm high (aquatic form), often aquatic. Leaves linear to very narrowly ovate, to 12 mm long and 1.2 mm wide (aquatic forms filiform to 20 mm long). Inflorescence axillary with tiny solitary flowers on long peduncles to 32 mm. Flowering between October and November.
Fruit type:
Pale brown capsule to 2.5 mm long.
Seed type:
Dark brown ovoid seed to 0.45 mm long and 0.4 mm wide, with a reticulated surface.
Embryo type:
Linear under-developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect maturing capsules, those that are fat, turning a straw colour and contain hard brown seeds or collect whole plant with numerous maturing capsules.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules/stems in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the capsules/stems gently by hand or with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Be very careful as the seeds are very small. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were high, at 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA2600 (0.11 g)100+6-Oct-2007RJB74677
Southern Lofty
19-Sep-2008100%+5°C, -18°C
16000 (0.268 g)
16000 (0.27 g)
Kangaroo Island
19-Sep-2008100%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.