Seeds of South Australia
Phyllanthus fuernrohrii (Euphorbiaceae)
Sand Spurge
List of species for Phyllanthus
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Murray
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Northern Flinders (FLB05)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [limited habitat]
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [soon to change genus]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [southern limit, sandhill spp.]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [southern limit, sandhill spp.]
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern   [southern limit, sandhill spp.]
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern   [southern limit, sandhill spp.]
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Least Concern
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern
Simpson Desert (SSD02)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Least Concern
Dieri (SSD03) 
 Least Concern
Warriner (SSD04) 
 Least Concern
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [limited habitat]
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Macumba (STP05) 
 Least Concern
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Least Concern
Diamantina-Eyre (CHC04) 
 Least Concern
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Least Concern
Lake Pure (CHC07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Pedirka (FIN04)Finke
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Northern Flinders (FLB05)Flinders Lofty BlockRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [limited habitat]
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling DepressionRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [soon to change genus]
6 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
6 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryLeast Concern
, Rare
Pedirka (FIN04)FinkeLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Phyllanthus]
Name derivation:
Phyllanthus from the Greek 'phyllon' meaning a leaf and 'anthos' meaning a flower; referring to some foreign species where the flowers grow on the edges of dilated leaf-like branchlets. Fuernrohrii named after August Emanuel Fürnrohr (1804–1861), a German botanist and editor of the journal Flora oder Botanische Zeitung.
Distribution:
Found scattered across the eastern side of South Australia, north of the Murray, growing on sandy soil. Also found in all mainland states except in Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia.
Plant description:
Many-stemmed perennial subshrub to 40 cm high, covered in minute spreading white hairs. Leaves broad-obovate or obovate to oblong, to 29 mm long and 10 mm wide, apex obtuse. Male inflorescence 1 or 2 together on peduncles to 3 mm long with yellow-green sometimes tinged red flowers. Female inflorescence on slender peduncles to 9 mm long, solitary or with male flowers. Flowers throughout the year dependence on rainfall.
Fruit type:
Yellow-green depressed-globular capsule to 6 mm diameter, 3-lobed, hairy.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect individually or break off short fruiting stems with fat capsules with hard dark seed. Green capsules can be collected if the seeds are dark and hard.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then gently rub the capsules with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieves to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-1768%1414 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1762%1428 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1750%1456
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-178%28NA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)