Seeds of South Australia
Eryngium ovinum (Umbelliferae)
Blue devil
List of species for Eryngium
Display more images
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
January to April
Herbarium regions:
Northern Lofty, Murray, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Lucindale (NCP03)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [localised habitat; doesn't tolerate salinity]
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN C2a(i))   (Probable Decline)   [not often seen; threatened by habitat destruction, grazing, weeds, salinity, spraying]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN C2a(i))   (Probable Decline)   [known from 5 locations, not often seen; threatened by habitat destruction, grazing, weeds, salinity, spraying]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU C2a(i))   (Probable Decline)
Lowan Mallee (MDD04)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [usuitable water regime]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Eryngium]
Name derivation:
Eryngium from the Greco-Latin 'eryngion' meaning sea holly.  May also be from the Greek 'eryngano' meaning to belch, as the plant was used as a remedy for flatulence. Ovinum from the Latin 'ovinum' meaning sheep but the reference is unclear.
Distribution:
Found in the wetter parts of the Mount Lofty Ranges and a few sites in the lower South-East in South Australia, growing in open woodland on damp clay and sandy soils. Also found in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Rare in South Australia. Rare in Tasmania. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Stiffly erect, short lived perennial herb to 30 cm tall. Basal leaves pinnatisect, to 15 cm long, stem leaves to 6 cm long. Inflorescence a dense globular head with blue flowers with metallic blue or purple spinose bracts. Flowering between November and January.
Fruit type:
Spiky, pale brown ovoid fruit-head.
Seed type:
Brown ovoid seeds to 2 mm long covered in thick white hair and 2-3 spikes at one end.
Embryo type:
Linear under-developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect heads that are drying and turning a straw colour. Be careful as the plant can be very prickly. Collect more than what is required as not all seeds will be viable.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for two weeks. Then rub the heads with a rubber bung and not with your hands as the heads are prickly. Then use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Use an aspirator (if available) to remove the lighter non-viable seeds from the heavy viable seeds. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From five collections, the seed viability were low to high, ranging from 25% to 88%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
2400
2400
1527-Apr-2004DJD 1
Southern Lofty
1-Sep-200450%+5°C, -18°C
BGA638 (1.15 g)20-308-Feb-2005DJD 114
Northern Lofty
28-Mar-200688%-18°C
BGA2800 (5.66 g)251-Apr-2006DJD447
Southern Lofty
9-Aug-200655%-18°C
BGA11200 (26.65 g)50+10-Jan-2006DDC1420
Northern Lofty
9-Aug-200625%+5°C, -18°C
BGA790 (1.1 g)61-Mar-2010Frances Pro
South Eastern
Jun-201030%-18°C
BGA980 (2.47 g)17-Mar-2010Big Flat NFR
Southern Lofty
Jun-201030%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
August 200695%20d41d Stored at -18°C for 1 year.
Wet filter paper placed over propagating sand.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 201094%21d21d Stored at 5°C for 5yrs.
1% water agar.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 200588%14d41d None.
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge.
Incubated under winter conditions
March 201075%21d35d Stored at -18°C for 5yrs.
1% water agar.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
July 200449%21dNA Surface sterilised in 20% H2O2 solution (10mins).
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)