Seeds of South Australia
Podolepis muelleri (Compositae)
Small Copper-wire Daisy
List of species for Podolepis
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Seed collecting:
September to December
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Northern Lofty, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [highly restricted to coast around Aldinga Scrub/Sellicks; coastal development & urbanisation threats]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR D)   (Probable Decline)   [Likes stony sites. Needs more survey work.]
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Data Deficient   [Data deficient]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU C1)   (Probable Decline)   [Likes stony sites. Needs more survey work.]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(iii))   (Probable Decline)   [habitat severely degraded]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Regionally Extinct   [Old records, pre 1910. Presumed extinct.]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Podolepis]
Name derivation:
Podolepis from the Greek 'podos' meaning foot and 'lepis' meaning a scale; referring to the stalked involucral bracts. Muelleri named after Baron Ferdinand von Mueller (1825-1896), botanist, plant collector and Government Botanist of Victoria.
Distribution:
Found mainly in the Flinders Ranges and the Mount Lofty Ranges, growing on coastal cliffs and on stony sites in woodland and grassland further inland. Also found in New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Very rare in South Australia. Very rare in Victoria. Common in New South Wales.
Plant description:
Small annual to 22 cm high, with woolly to glabrescent, reddish, wiry stems that are sparsely branching. Leaves woolly with basal leaves dying early. Stem leaves lanceolate to 4 cm long and clasping the stem. Involucral bracts  with linear glandular claws and broad ovate, smooth lamina to 4 mm long. Florets pale yellow to yellow. Flowering between August and October.
Fruit type:
White fluffy daisy-head.
Seed type:
Brown ovoid seed to 2.5 mm long and 1 mm wide, smooth with few short feathered-like pappus at one end.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect heads that are fluffy. Either pick off the whole heads or use your finger and pull off the seeds from the head. Mature seeds will come off easily.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray for a week to dry. No cleaning is required if only pure seeds are collected. If heads are collected, then rub the heads gently with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Viable seeds will be fat and hard. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From eight collections, the seed viability was high, ranging from 90% to 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA1100 (0.42 g)80-1005-Aug-2007KHB74
Flinders Ranges
19-Sep-200890%+5°C, -18°C
BGA 
MSB
5700 (2.44 g)
5700 (2.44 g)
200+13-Sep-2007PJL2560
Flinders Ranges
19-Sep-2008100%+5°C, -18°C
BGA14600 (6.47 g)500+8-Oct-2007KHB89
Flinders Ranges
19-Sep-2008100%+5°C, -18°C
BGA13700 (5.19 g)1-Jan-2011JQ107
Southern Lofty
1-Jan-2012100%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jun-14100%9 d9 d
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jun-14100%9 d9 d
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jun-1488%9 d9 d
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jun-1479%9 d9 d
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
May-1756%721 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
May-1753%721 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jun-1446%9 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jun-1445%9 dNA
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-167%7 dNA leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-167%21 dNA leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-163%42 dNA 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-160%NANA 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)