Seeds of South Australia
Prasophyllum pallidum (Orchidaceae)
Pale Leek-orchid
List of species for Prasophyllum
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Seed collecting:
October to December
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Northern Lofty, Southern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Northern and Yorke
IBRA regions
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   [endemic; Scott CP, Mt Crawford; often in box and grassy woodlands/threatened communities; rainfall sensitive]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [endemic; pops fluctuate between 110's & 1,000's; Joe Q thinks prob decline; often in box and grassy woodlands/threatened communities; rainfall sensitive]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR B1ab(i,iii,iv); D)   (Probable Decline)   [Gone from Kupunda. Less than 50 plants in Clare/Spring Gully area. Four-five subpops, small and scattered. Weed invasion greatest threat (eg Lavender).]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR B1ab(i,iii,iv); D)   (Definite Decline)   [One population, found in Alligator Gorge. Huge decrease. ]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Prasophyllum]
Name derivation:
Prasophyllum from the Greek ‘prason’ meaning a leek and ‘phyllon’ meaning a leaf, referring to the leek-like orchid leaf. Pallidum from the Latin 'pallidus' meaning pale, referring to the very pale flowers.
Endemic to South Australia and found in southern Flinders Ranges and the Mount Lofty Ranges, growing on the more fertile soils of woodland and well-grassed open forests.
Native. Very rare in South Australia. Vulnerable in Australia under the EPBC Act.
Plant description:
Terrestrial orchid with slender stem to 30 cm tall. Leaf long and lax, green at the base. Inflorescence a loose spike with many wholly pale green, sweetly fragrant flowers standing well out from the spike. Dorsal sepal ovate-lanceolate, to 6 mm long, generally erect, rarely recurved, lateral sepals rather longer, to 6.5 mm, quite free, parallel, lanceolate, usually with cylindrical 2-dentate points, petals bluntly linear, to 6.5 mm long, erect, labellum sessile, ovate-cuneate, to 5 mm long, recurved very nearly at fight angles about the middle. Flowering between September to November.
Fruit type:
Pale brown papery ellipsoid capsules along the spike.
Seed type:
Very small orange-brown ellipsoid seed with a long cylindrical translucent brown mesh-like covering.
Seed collecting:
Collect fat capsules as they start to dry and turn brown. Pods will split and release the seeds quickly and will require monitoring. To increase the chances of collecting mature pods, it is recommended that a small breathable bag (ie. Organza bags) be used to enclose the developing capsules.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a container that will hold fine seeds and leave to dry for a few weeks or until the capsule split. Then carefully hold the capsule and tap it gently to release the seeds. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place, refrigerator or in liquid nitrogen.
Seed viability:
For the NVC South East Orchid Project one population consisting of more than 10 individuals was recorded at Bangham Conservation Park. Approximately 145,000 seeds (0.44 g) were banked. Seed viability was 59%.
Seed germination:
Seed germination in orchids is difficult in the absence of symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi. More research is needed to understand the requirements for seed germination in Prasophyllum species.