Seeds of South Australia
Androcalva multiloba (Sterculiaceae)
Wrinkle-leaved Commersonia
List of species for Androcalva
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Seed collecting:
October to November
Herbarium region:
Eyre Peninsula
NRM region:
Eyre Peninsula
IBRA region
Eyre Hills (EYB03)Eyre Yorke Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: LC)
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: LC)
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Androcalva]
Name derivation:
Androcalva from the Greek 'andros' meaning a male and 'calvus' meaning bald, hairless; referring to the glabrous staminodes present in this genus. Multiloba from the Latin 'multus' meaning many and 'lobus' meaning rounded projection; referring to the many serrated lobes on the margin of leaves of this species.
Endemic to South Australia and currently only known from two locations near Cowell on Eyre Peninsula, growing on reddish-brown, clayey sand over granite or white sand, in Melaleuca and Acacia shrubland, with scattered mallee and Triodia.
Native. Very rare in South Australia.
Plant description:
Erect, spreading perennial shrub to 50 cm tall. Leaves are dark green, wrinkled and covered in fine stellate hairs. Stems are covered in copper coloured hairs. Flowers are white with a red centre. Flowering between August and october.
Fruit type:
Brown globular capsule with four valves, splitting when matured and contain numerous black seeds.
Seed type:
Small black tear-shaped seeds to 1.5 mm long, with small rounded projections on the seed coat.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Capsules can be collected prior to splitting as long as the seeds inside are hard and black.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and cover with paper to prevent seeds being lost when explosively 'popping' out. Leave to dry for at least a week. Rub the dried capsules by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to rub the fruits and to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a dessicant such as dried silica beads or dry rice in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
These seeds have physical dormancy and can be germinated after pre-treatment such as scarification, nicking or hot water. The pre-treatments remove/breach the physical barrier for moisture uptake.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
8300 (14.86 g)
8300 (14.86 g)
Eyre Peninsula
19-Sep-2008100%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jun-0896%7 d14 d seed coat nicked with scalpel;
filter paper over moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
filter paper over moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)