Seeds of South Australia
Radyera farragei (Malvaceae)
Desert Rose Mallow
List of species for Radyera
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Seed collecting:
October to January
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [likes disturbance, comes up after fire]
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [likes disturbance, comes up after fire]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Near Threatened   [needs fire/disturbance]
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [needs fire/disturbance]
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern   [longlasting seed]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [likes disturbance, comes up after fire]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [needs fire/disturbance]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [needs fire/disturbance]
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [needs fire/disturbance]
Kintore (GVD04)Great Victoria Desert
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [needs fire/disturbance]
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Near Threatened
Watarru (CER02) 
 Near Threatened
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Near Threatened
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
3 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockRare
3 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockNear Threatened
, Rare
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaVulnerable
  (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
3 of 8 subregionsGawlerRare
2 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertRare
3 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesNear Threatened
Tieyon (FIN03)FinkeRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Radyera]
Name derivation:
Radyera named after Dr. Robert Alen Dyer (1900-1987), a South African botanist and taxonomist, working particularly on Ameryllidaceae and succulents. Farragei  unsure of who it is named after.
Distribution:
Found in the central and north-western parts of South Australia, growing on sandy, calcareous soils in open mallee communities, often on roadsides, creek levees and floodout areas. Also found in Western Australia, Northern Territory, New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Uncommon in South Australia. Rare in Victoria. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Short-lived perennial shrub 1 m high, with stems dying back to ground level in winter. Leaves broadly ovate, to 15 cm long and wide, cordate, widely toothed, green above and whitish below. Inflorescence usually 2 or 3 on short pedicels arising from a stout axillary peduncle, with purplish (darker basal spot) flowers. Flowers throughout the year depending on rainfall.
Fruit type:
Pale brown hairy, globular capsule to 15 mm diameter, exceeding the calyx.
Seed type:
Dark mottled brown to black ovoid seed to 3 mm long and 1.5 mm wide, with two flat faces. 
Embryo type:
Folded.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsules, those that are turning pale straw colour and contain dark hard seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for two weeks. Then rub the capsules gently with a rubber bung or by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 80%.
Seed germination:
This species has physical dormancy that needs to be overcome for the seed to germinate (e.g. nicking or softening the seed coat).
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA2900 (22.5 g)50+29-Oct-2013DJD2785
Lake Eyre
24-Mar-201580%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-14100%10 d10 d seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1258%11 d15 d seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1226%23 dNA hot water (95°C) 16 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)