Seeds of South Australia
Amphibromus archeri (Gramineae)
Pointed Swamp Wallaby-grass
List of species for Amphibromus
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Seed collecting:
November to February
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [limited habitat; in forest reserves]
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [limited habitat; threatened by weeds & drying out]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [limited habitat; loss of habitat due to drying out]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B1ab(i,ii,iii)+2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [also in Gum Lagoon CP; water stress a threat]
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [freshwater/wetland sp; only occasionally seen in good quality habitat; numbers fluctuate; comes & goes; drying out & salinity - threats]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [freshwater/wetland sp; only occasionally seen in good quality habitat; numbers fluctuate; comes & goes; drying out a threat]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [freshwater/wetland sp; only occasionally seen in good quality habitat; numbers fluctuate; comes & goes; drying out a threat]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR D)   (Probable Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR D)   (Probable Decline)
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Amphibromus]
Name derivation:
Amphibromus from the Greek 'amphi' meaning double and 'bromus' a grass genus, referring to the spikelets resembling those of the genus Bromus. Archeri named after William Archer (1820-1874), Fellow of the Linnaean Society, architect and parliamentarian in Tasmania.
Found on Kangaroo Island, Mount Lofty ranges and the Southeast, growing in damp areas such as lagoons, waterholes and swamps, often on predominantly sandy soils. Also found in Victoria and Tasmania.
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other States.
Plant description:
An erect perennial grass to 1.2 m tall with leaf blades to 32 cm long and 4 mm wide, glabrous to scabrous below, deeply ribbed with short stiff hairs on the ribs above. Panicle erect to 35 cm long, spikelets to 18 mm long, with 3-7 bisexual florets. Glumes unequal, glabrous. Flowering between October and January.
Fruit type:
Lemma more or less smooth to densely papillose. Lemma apex 4-toothed. Awn arising 30-45% of the lemma length from the lemma tip, bent, twisted, scabrous, 14.5-17.5 mm long, pale-green to a dark purple-brown.
Seed type:
Yellow-brown grain to 2mm long.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Use hands to gently strip seeds off the mature seed spike that are turning straw colour. Mature seeds will come off easily. Alternatively, you can break off the whole seed spike.
Seed cleaning:
Place the seeds/spike in a tray and leave to dry for two weeks. No further cleaning is required if only seed collected. If seed spikes collected, use hand to strip off the mature seeds. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From four collections, the seed viability was low to high, ranging from 40% to 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA3000 (0.84 g)501-Dec-2007RJB75970
Southern Lofty
19-Sep-2008100%+5°C, -18°C
4350 (8.93 g)
4350 (8.93 g)
South Eastern
19-Sep-200840%+5°C, -18°C
BGA920 (2.41 g)3022-Dec-2008DJD1410
Southern Lofty
Southern Lofty
BGA1700 (5.01 g)50+18-Jan-2011Kuitpo
Southern Lofty
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-17100%77 caryopses excised, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1696%7 d7 d caryopsis excised;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-1790%77 caryopses excised, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)