Seeds of South Australia
Santalum lanceolatum (Santalaceae)
Native plumbush
List of species for Santalum
Display more images
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
September to January
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Olary Spur (FLB03)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1+2)   (Probable Decline)   [highly localised on cliffs; good stock fodder]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Least Concern
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Least Concern
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Least Concern
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Yalata (NUL03)Nullarbor
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [no records]
Barrier Range Outwash (BHC04)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern
Bimbowrie (BHC05) 
 Least Concern
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Least Concern
Simpson Desert (SSD02)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Least Concern
Dieri (SSD03) 
 Least Concern
Warriner (SSD04) 
 Least Concern
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Least Concern
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04) 
 Least Concern
Macumba (STP05) 
 Least Concern
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Least Concern
Diamantina-Eyre (CHC04) 
 Least Concern
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Least Concern
Lake Pure (CHC07) 
 Least Concern
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Least Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Least Concern
Pedirka (FIN04) 
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
4 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Vulnerable
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke BlockVulnerable
  (IUCN: VU D2)
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaVulnerable
  (IUCN: VU D1+2)   (Probable Decline)   [highly localised on cliffs; good stock fodder]
7 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
, Rare
Yalata (NUL03)NullarborRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [no records]
3 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
7 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryLeast Concern
3 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 2 subregionsFinkeLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Santalum]
Name derivation:
Santalum from the Greek santalon, which is derived from the Sanskrit chandana meaning fragrant, named for the Indian sandalwood.  Lanceolatum from the Latin lanceola, meaning a lance and referring to the shape of the leaf.
Distribution:
Found across the arid regions of South Australia, north of Port Augusta with a few records from Yorke Peninsula, Northern Lofty and the Murraylands. Also occurs in Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queenlsand, New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Common in South Australia. Common interstate.
Plant description:
Tall shrub or small tree to 4m tall with fleshy yellow-green leaves arranged in pairs and drooping down on the branches. Flower is small and pale yellow.
Fruit type:
Small, ovoid, dark red, fleshy fruit to about 1.5cm long.
Seed type:
Small, woody, ovoid seed to 1cm long.
Seed collecting:
Pick by hand fruits that are turning red and soft and the woody seed inside is hard.
Seed cleaning:
Place the fruits in a bucket of water and rub with your hands to remove the soft flesh. Remove any seeds that are floating. These will be empty seeds. Drain the water and keep only the hard seeds at the bottom. Place the seeds on paper towel and leave to dry. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has physiological dormancy that need to be overcome for the seed to germinate (e.g. nicking the seed coat).
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA1230 (87.11 g)50+10-Jan-2006DDC1430
Eastern
8-Aug-2006100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-0632%7 dNA endocarp gently cracked in a vice;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)