Seeds of South Australia
Amphibromus nervosus (Gramineae)
Veined Swamp Wallaby-grass
List of species for Amphibromus
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Seed collecting:
November to February
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [mostly unsuitable habitat]
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [spread by waterbirds]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [mostly in Honan NF; limited habitat]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [habitat quality decline]
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Near Threatened   [likes freshwater habitat; tolerates some salinity; protected within reserves]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Near Threatened   [likes freshwater habitat; tolerates some salinity]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Near Threatened   [likes freshwater habitat; tolerates some salinity]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA ad(i,ii))
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA ad(i,ii))
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA ad(i,ii))
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [comes up after floods; vlunerable to disturbance; sensitive to water quality; edge of range]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Regionally Extinct
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [needs water, restricted habitat, climate change & salinity a threat]
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [needs water, restricted habitat, climate change & salinity a threat]
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range; unsuitalbe habitat; comes & goes]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   [salinity a threat - needs fresh water]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [around lakes]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Definite Decline)
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   [loss in quality of habitat; salinity]
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [mostly unsuitable habitat]
3 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainRare
, Vulnerable
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooNear Threatened
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockNear Threatened
, Rare
3 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockEndangered
, Regionally Extinct
5 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionRare
, Vulnerable
, Endangered
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaVulnerable
  (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   [loss in quality of habitat; salinity]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Amphibromus]
Name derivation:
Amphibromus from the Greek 'amphi' meaning double and 'bromus' a grass genus, referring to the spikelets resembling those of the genus Bromus. Nervosus from the Greek 'nervus' meaning nerve and 'osa' meaning abundance, referring to the conspicuous nerves in lemmas.
Found in the southern parts of South Australia,  growing in permanently or seasonally wet sites. Also found in Western Australia, New South Wales and Victoria.
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other States.
Plant description:
Erect perennial  grass to 1.25 m tall, (occasionally rooting at the nodes.) Leaf blades to 30 cm long and 3.5 mm wide, glabrous to scabrous. Panicle erect, contracted, incompletely exserted, to 40 cm long. Spikelets to 16 mm long, with 4-6 bisexual florets. Glumes unequal to subequal, glabrous, acute. Flowering between October and January.
Fruit type:
Lemma scabrous, 5-7.2 mm long. Apex 2-toothed, usually with 2 smaller lateral teeth/notches, sometimes 4-toothed; inner teeth 0.3-0.7 mm long. Awn arising 40-55% of the lemma length from the tip, bent, twisted, scabrous; 12-22 mm long, pale, rarely a dark purple-brown.
Seed type:
Yellow-brown grain to 3mm long.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Use hands to gently strip seeds off the mature seed spike that are turning straw colour. Mature seeds will come off easily. Alternatively, you can break off the whole seed spike.
Seed cleaning:
Place the seeds/spike in a tray and leave to dry for two weeks. No further cleaning is required if only seed collected. If seed spikes collected, use hand to strip off the mature seeds. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability was low, ranging from 25% to 35%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
950 (1.15 g)
1250 (1.54 g)
>3019-Jan-2005DJD 97
South Eastern
2900 (7.65 g)
2900 (7.65 g)
South Eastern
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.