Seeds of South Australia
Senecio cunninghamii var. flindersensis (Compositae)
Branching Groundsel
List of species for Senecio
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Seed collecting:
January to April
Herbarium regions:
Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Data Deficient
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Data Deficient
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Data Deficient
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)   [grazed; edge of range]
Torrens (GAW06)Gawler
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)   [grazed]
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill Complex
 Data Deficient
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Senecio]
Name derivation:
Senecio from the Latin 'senex' meaning an old man; referring to the white pappus attached to the seed. Cunninghamii named after Allan Cunningham (1791-1839), an English botanist and explorer, primarily known for his travels in Australia to collect plants, including the type specimen for this species from Lake George. Flindersensis alludes to the Flinders Ranges where this variety occurs.
Endemic to South Australia and found in the mid-north, from near Hawker in the Flinders Ranges south-south-east to Clare, growing on edges of creeks and flood-plains.
Native. Uncommon in South Australia.
Plant description:
Perrenial shrub to 1.8 m high, hailess except for newer growth which has woolly hairs and glaucous. Leaves sub-fleshy to fleshy. Mid-branch leaves narrow-elliptic, narrow oblong-elliptic or linear to narrow-linear, to 14 cm long, undivided. Upper leaves with small undivided auricles, not amplexicaul, margin entire, revolute, or sometimes larger leaves with scattered teeth. Flower-heads with 5–25 dense clusters, with small yellow rayless daisy flowers. This variety differ from Senecio cunninghamii var. cunninghamii by having a stem leaves length:width ratio < 10, margin often dentate and mid-branch leaves length:width ratio of 7–15(–20). Peduncles and capitula mostly patchily woolly at and before anthesis, not glaucous. Flowering mostly summer to autumn.
Fruit type:
Pale brown vase-shaped daisy-head.
Seed type:
Yellow-brown oblong seed to 3 mm long and 0.5 mm wide, covered in white hairs and with numerous deep striations, pappus not persisting.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect heads that are fat, hard and turning brown by picking off the whole heads.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray for a week to dry. Then rub the heads gently with your hands or a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Viable seeds will be fat and hard. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was average, at 60%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA5000 (4.04 g)3813-Feb-2007RJB71392
Flinders Ranges
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Oct-1543%7 dNA 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Oct-1543%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Oct-1536%7 dNA 500 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Oct-1530%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)