Seeds of South Australia
Senecio gypsicola (Compositae)
Gypsum Groundsel
List of species for Senecio
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Seed collecting:
August to October
Herbarium region:
Lake Eyre
NRM region:
South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA region
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [restricted habitat; gypseous; naturally rare]
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [restricted habitat; gypseous; naturally rare]
Baltana (STP07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [restricted habitat; gypseous; naturally rare]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Senecio]
Name derivation:
Senecio from the Latin 'senex' meaning an old man; referring to the white pappus attached to the seed. Gypsicola from the Latin 'gypsum' meaning chalk or gypsum and 'colao' meaning dwelling, referring to the gypseous sites on which the species has been found.
Distribution:
Endemic to South Australia and found in the north-central area, growing on mounds of black gypseous clay in ephemeral herbfields.
Status:
Native. Rare in south Australia. More common after heavy rain.
Plant description:
Glabrous annual herb to 30 cm high. Stem leaves narrow-obovate to oblanceolate, to 4 cm long, undivided, leathery, bluish-green. Inflorescence solitary at terminal of stem with large yellow daisy-flower. Flowering between July and September.
Fruit type:
Large fluffy daisy-head with exposed white pappus.
Seed type:
Dark brown curved oblong seed to 7 mm long and 2 mm wide, with longitudinal ridges covered in scattered white hairs and white pappus.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect heads that are large and fluffy. Either pick off the whole heads or use your finger and pull off the seeds from the head. Mature seeds will come off easily.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray for a week to dry. No cleaning is required if only pure seeds are collected. If heads are collected, then rub the heads gently with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Viable seeds will be fat and hard. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability were high, ranging from 95% to 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA11050+6-Oct-2010DJD1951
Lake Eyre
1-Jan-2012NCT
BGA 
MSB
2400 (14.14 g)
2400 (14.14 g)
50+5-Oct-2010TST1019
Lake Eyre
1-Jan-2012100%+5°C, -18°C
BGA7150 (33.79 g)100+7-Sep-2013DJD2716
Lake Eyre
24-Mar-2015100%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-1436%7 dNA 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
May-1733%7NA 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1426%7 dNA 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-1717%14NA 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-146%21 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-144%91 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-140%NANA dry heat 100°C oven 2 min, 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-140%NANA dry heat 100°C oven 2 min, 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)