Seeds of South Australia
Senecio macrocarpus (Compositae)
Large-fruit Groundsel
List of species for Senecio
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Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Lucindale (NCP03)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Data Deficient   [could be squarrosus]
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [localised in Messent & Gum Lagoon; P Lang - could be Rare]
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR D)   (Probable Decline)   [Clare record unreliable. Population near Tarcowie on roadside. Less than 50 plants.]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   (Probable Decline)   [prone to grazing, habitat specific]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)   [some taxo issues; responds to fire & rain]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Senecio]
Name derivation:
Lanin 'senex' an old man, refers to the white pappus and Greek 'macros' large, 'carpos' fruit
Occuring in a variety of habitats including grasslands, sedgelands, shrublands and woodlands. Often in depressions that are waterlogged in winter, on sandy loam to heavy clay soils.
Vulnerable in South Australia
Plant description:
Perennial herb 20-70cm high. Leaves alternate, linear, 10cm long, 2-5mm wide, grey-green, covered with fine hairs. Inflorescence a cyme with 2-10 capitula 18mm x 20mm.  Up to 150 yellow florets, surrounded by linear, pointed bracts.  Flowering September - October.
Fruit type:
Achenes 4.5-5 rarely 6 mm long, brown, rostrate, covered in very short, greyish hairs; pappus deciduous, dimorphic. 
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
13090 (6.4 g)
13090 (6.4 g)
South Eastern
14-Sep-200690%+5°C, -18°C
BGA21700 (6.24 g)5018-Sep-2007RJB74668
South Eastern
19-Sep-2008100%+5°C, -18°C
BGA5240 (25.62 g)1-Oct-2013KHB306
Flinders Ranges
24-Mar-201595%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jun-1260%8 d18 d
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under winter conditions
Jun-1254%8 d18 d
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jun-1248%8 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jun-1244%8 dNA
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jun-1238%8 dNA
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jun-1222%6 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)