Seeds of South Australia
Senecio pilosicristus (Compositae)
Tall Yellow-top
List of species for Senecio
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Seed collecting:
October to December
Herbarium regions:
Murray, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Kangaroo Island, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Regionally Extinct   [presumed extinct]
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Regionally Extinct   [not recorded since 1924, presumed extinct]
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [possibly extinct; lack of knowledge]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [possibly extinct; lack of knowledge]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Senecio]
Name derivation:
Senecio from the Latin 'senex' meaning an old man, referring to the white pappus attached to the seed. Pilosicristus from the Latin 'pilosus' meaning hairy and 'cristus' meaning ridge, referring to the papillose hairs along the prominent ridges of the achenes.
Distribution:
Found in the Murray region in South Australia, with old records from Kangaroo uisland, growing on sandy loam soils in swales amongst burnt mallee. Also found in Victoria.
Status:
Native. Very rare in South Australia. rare in Victoria.
Plant description:
Short-lived, erect, fleshy, glaucous herb to 70cm tall. Leaves sessile, stem clasping, tapered-lanceolate. Cauline leaves on reddish purple stems. Basal rosette leaves spathulate to 90 mm long and 25 mm wide. Inflorescence terminal clusters with  4-10 large yellow daisy flowers. Flowering between August and November.
Fruit type:
Large fluffy daisy-head with exposed white pappus.
Seed type:
Dark brown oblong seed to 5 mm long with longitudinal ridges covered in white hairs and white pappus.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect heads that are large and fluffy. Either pick off the whole heads or use your finger and pull off the seeds from the head. Mature seeds will come off easily.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray for a week to dry. No cleaning is required if only pure seeds are collected. If heads are collected, then rub the heads gently with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Viable seeds will be fat and hard. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 85%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
6280 (18.85 g)
1850 (5.55 g)
50+20-Oct-2010DJD1900
Murray
1-Jan-201285%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
May-1142%21 dNA
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under winter conditions
May-114%19 dNA 10 months at 40% humidity (dark, summer);
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-112%42 dNA
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-110%NANA
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-110%NANA
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under winter conditions
May-110%NANA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-110%NANA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)