Seeds of South Australia
Solanum capsiciforme (Solanaceae)
Native Pepper
List of species for Solanum
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Seed collecting:
November to February
Herbarium regions:
Nullarbor, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Kangaroo Island
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   (Probable Decline)   [needs fire to regenerate]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ac(i,ii,iii,iv))   (Probable Decline)   [after fire]
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ac(i,ii,iii,iv))   (Probable Decline)   [after fire]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [clearance a threat]
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [naturally rare]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [lack of habitat]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [clearance a threat]
Yalata (NUL03)Nullarbor
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [lack of habitat]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Solanum]
Name derivation:
Solanum was first used by Pliny the Elder (23–79) for S. nigrum, also known as strychnos and possibly from the Latin 'sol' meaning sun; referring to its status as a plant of the sun or from the Latin 'solamen' meaning solace, comfort; referring to the narcotic properties of some species. Capsiciforme means shaped like a capsicum; possibly referring to the conical-shaped of the fruit.
Found on the Eyre Peninsula, Yorke Peninsula and Kangaroo Island in South Australia, growing in disturbed sites on sandy soils or in sand over limestone in open shrub and woodland. Also found in Western Australia.
Uncommon in South Australia. Uncommon in Western Australia.
Plant description:
Soft-wooded, short-lived erect shrub to 1 m tall, mostly glabrous. Juvenile leaves oblong-lanceolate to 8 cm long and 2 cm wide with up to 11 lobes. Adult leaves linear-lanceolate to 10 cm long and 1 cm wide, entire.Inflorescence a spike with 1-6 lavender violet flowers. Flowering mainly between September and November.
Fruit type:
Distinctive green conical fruit to 2.5 cm long, with little flesh but well filled with seeds and stony granules.
Seed type:
Orange-brown flat, round seed to 2 mm long and 1.5 mm wide, with a slightly wrinkled surface. Within the fruit there will be some white hard spherical material. These are not seed.
Embryo type:
Linear fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Pick fruits which are ripening, green, fat, hard and full of orange-brown seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the fruits in a tray and leave to dry for two weeks. Then rub the dried material by hand to remove any remaining flesh from the seeds. Use a sieve to remove the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was average, at 75%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
8600 (11.66 g)
8600 (11.66 g)
Kangaroo Island
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.