Seeds of South Australia
Sprengelia incarnata (Epacridaceae)
Pink Swamp-heath
List of species for Sprengelia
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Seed collecting:
November to January
Herbarium regions:
Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Kangaroo Island, South East
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [dependent on good quality habitat, localised]
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v))   (Probable Decline)   [habitat completely cleared, could be extinct, 8 Mile Ck]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [in Honans & the Marshes]
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [restricted to freshwater swamps; mostly in Flinders Chase]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [restricted to freshwater swamps, in Square Water Hole]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii); D)   (Probable Decline)   [restricted to Cleland & Mt Bold; in Pumphouse Swamp; climate sensitive; could be CR]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Sprengelia]
Name derivation:
Sprengelia named after Kurt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel (1766-1833), a German botanist and physician. Incarnata from the Latin 'carn' meaning flesh and 'atus' meaning like; alluding to the hue of the flowers sometimes like flesh.
Distribution:
Found on Kangaroo Island, southern Mount Lofty Ranges and the lower South-east in South Australia, growing in wet heathland, sedgeland and other swampy vegetation on peaty or sandy soils. Also found in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Rare in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Erect shrub to 2 m high. Leaves spreading above sheathing base, ovate to lanceolate, to 20 mm long and 6 mm wide, concave, apex tapering to a point. Inflorescence crowded in the upper 1–8 cm of the stems with pinkish-white flowers. Flowering between June and December.
Fruit type:
Brown capsule to 2.5 mm long and 1.8 mm wide.
Seed type:
Orange ovoid seed to 0.7 mm long and 0.4 mm wide, with wrinkled surface.
Embryo type:
Linear under-developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsules, those that are turning a pale straw colour and contain orange seeds. Monitoring of ripping capsules maybe required as capsules can split and release the seeds quickly.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Be very careful as the seeds are very small. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
Seeds have morphophysiological dormancy and will not germinate readily without treatment. Germination is enhanced by treating with fire cues, heat and smoke water, and gibberellic acid.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Aug-1533%7 dNA 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Aug-1523%7 dNA dry heat 90°C oven 5 min, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Aug-150%NANA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)