Seeds of South Australia
Sprengelia incarnata (Epacridaceae)
Pink Swamp-heath
List of species for Sprengelia
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Seed collecting:
November to January
Herbarium regions:
Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Kangaroo Island, South East
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [dependent on good quality habitat, localised]
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v))   (Probable Decline)   [habitat completely cleared, could be extinct, 8 Mile Ck]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [in Honans & the Marshes]
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [restricted to freshwater swamps; mostly in Flinders Chase]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [restricted to freshwater swamps, in Square Water Hole]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii); D)   (Probable Decline)   [restricted to Cleland & Mt Bold; in Pumphouse Swamp; climate sensitive; could be CR]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Sprengelia]
Name derivation:
Sprengelia named after Kurt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel (1766-1833), a German botanist and physician. Incarnata from the Latin 'carn' meaning flesh and 'atus' meaning like; alluding to the hue of the flowers sometimes like flesh.
Found on Kangaroo Island, southern Mount Lofty Ranges and the lower South-east in South Australia, growing in wet heathland, sedgeland and other swampy vegetation on peaty or sandy soils. Also found in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Rare in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Erect shrub to 2 m high. Leaves spreading above sheathing base, ovate to lanceolate, to 20 mm long and 6 mm wide, concave, apex tapering to a point. Inflorescence crowded in the upper 1–8 cm of the stems with pinkish-white flowers. Flowering between June and December.
Fruit type:
Brown capsule to 2.5 mm long and 1.8 mm wide.
Seed type:
Orange ovoid seed to 0.7 mm long and 0.4 mm wide, with wrinkled surface.
Embryo type:
Linear under-developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsules, those that are turning a pale straw colour and contain orange seeds. Monitoring of ripping capsules maybe required as capsules can split and release the seeds quickly.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Be very careful as the seeds are very small. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed germination:
Seeds have morphophysiological dormancy and will not germinate readily without treatment. Germination is enhanced by treating with fire cues, heat and smoke water, and gibberellic acid.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Aug-1533%7 dNA 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Aug-1523%7 dNA dry heat 90°C oven 5 min, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water 48 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)