Seeds of South Australia
Spyridium eriocephalum var. glabrisepalum (Rhamnaceae)
Macgillivray Spyridium
List of species for Spyridium
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Seed collecting:
October to December
Herbarium region:
Kangaroo Island
NRM region:
Kangaroo Island
IBRA regions
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv))   (Probable Decline)   [mostly on roadsides; in Beyeria CP; conservation dependent; fire responsive]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03)Murray Darling Depression
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [could be extinct]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Spyridium]
Name derivation:
Spyridium from the Greek 'spyridion' meaning a small basket, referring to the flower-heads which are circled by leafy bracts. Eriocephalum from the Greek 'erion' meaning woolly and 'cephalum' meaning head, referring to its woolly fruit-heads. Glabrisepalum from the Latin 'glaber' meaning smooth and 'sepalus' meaning sepals, referring to its glabrous sepals giving the flower-heads of the variety a non-woolly appearance.
Distribution:
Endemic to South Australia and found on the eastern side of Kangaroo Island, growing in Eucalyptus diversifolia and E. cneorifolia mallee.
Status:
Native. Very rare in South Australia.
Plant description:
Low slender shrub to 1 m high, young branches with whitish hairs. Leaves rigid, linear to 10 mm long and 1 mm wide, taper at each end and have strong revolute margins. Inflorescence a dense cymose at the end of stems with funnel shaped white or cream flowers, with glabrous, thick sepals giving the flower-head a non-woolly appearance. Flowering between August and November. This variety differ from the other variety found in South Australia, Spyridium eriocephalum var. eriocephalum which have hairy sepals hairy giving the flower-head a woolly appearance.
Fruit type:
Dark brown head with numerous seed capsules.
Seed type:
Orange mottled ovoid seed to 1.5 mm long and 1 mm wide, with a smooth surface.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect fruit heads that are darkening and have a fluffy appearance. Rub the flower parts in your palm to see if there is any seed, which should be orange and hard.

In 2016 seed collections were achieved for three roadside populations on Kangaroo island with the support of the Australian Seed Bank Partnership.

Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for a week. Then rub the heads with your hands or a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has morphophysiological dormancy that need to be overcome for the seed to germinate.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-1783%1414 hot water (90°C) poured over, left to soak 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-0475%19 d49 d hot water (90°C) 10 min, 20% hydrogen peroxide 10 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sponge;
14/10;  /  10°C/18°C
Jul-1750%728 hot water (90°C) poured over, left to soak 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-042%22 dNA 20% hydrogen peroxide 10 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sponge;
14/10;  /  10°C/18°C
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)