Seeds of South Australia
Spyridium subochreatum (Rhamnaceae)
Velvet spyridium
List of species for Spyridium
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Seed collecting:
November to January
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Lucindale (NCP03)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Southern Flinders (FLB04)Flinders Lofty Block
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR D)   (Definite Decline)   [need to do more surveys]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   (Definite Decline)   [need to do more surveys]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern   [should be more records]
Talia (EYB04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern   [should be more records]
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [may be gone now]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Near Threatened
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Data Deficient   [imprecise location]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Regionally Extinct   [possibly extinct; unlikely habitat]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
2 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Southern Flinders (FLB04)Flinders Lofty BlockCritically Endangered
  (IUCN: CR D)   (Definite Decline)   [need to do more surveys]
4 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Vulnerable
, Endangered
5 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
, Data Deficient
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaRegionally Extinct
  [possibly extinct; unlikely habitat]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Spyridium]
Name derivation:
Spyridium from the Greek 'spyridion' meaning a small basket; referring to the flowerheads which are circled by leafy bracts. Subochreatum from the Latin 'sub' meaning towards and Greek 'orchre' meaning yellow ochre; alluding to the pale yellow flowers.
Distribution:
Found in the southern part of South Australia, growing in heath and mallee on sandy soil. Also found in Western Australia and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Rare in Western Australia. Common in Victoria.
Plant description:
Perennial shrub, sometimes reaching more than 1 m in height. Leaves to 12 mm long and 6 mm wide, linear to linear-oblong, hoary above sometimes becoming glabrous, grey-green. Flowers in dense globular compound heads to 12 mm diameter, floral tube stellate-hairy, white. Flowering between September and December.
Fruit type:
Brown obovoid capsule to 2 mm long, covered with hairs.
Seed type:
Flattened, obovoid orange seed to 1.5 mm long and 1 mm wide, sometimes spotted or mottled.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect fruit heads that are darkening and have a fluffy appearance. Rub the flower parts in your palm to seed if there is any seed, which should be yellow and hard.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for a week. Then rub the heads with your hands or a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Be careful as the seeds are very small. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
Seed set can be low, however, viability is high. From two collections, the seed viability were average to high, ranging from 70% to 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has physiological dormancy that need to be overcome for the seed to germinate (e.g. nicking or softening the seed coat).
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
6100 (2.44 g)
6100 (2.44 g)
40-5020-Nov-2006DJD689
Murray
1-Aug-2007100%-18°C
BGA4100 (1.484 g)7-Nov-2013JRG58
Murray
24-Mar-2015 (Xray 70%)-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jun-1584%7 d21 d seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Nov-1446%61 dNA seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
6 weeks spring/autumn, then winter;
Nov-1424%61 dNA boiling water 30 s;
1% agar;
5 weeks spring/autumn, then winter;
Jun-152%42 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Nov-140%NANA
1% agar;
4 weeks spring/autumn, then winter;
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)