Seeds of South Australia
Spyridium subochreatum (Rhamnaceae)
Velvet spyridium
List of species for Spyridium
Display more images
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
November to January
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Lucindale (NCP03)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Southern Flinders (FLB04)Flinders Lofty Block
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR D)   (Definite Decline)   [need to do more surveys]
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   (Definite Decline)   [need to do more surveys]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern   [should be more records]
Talia (EYB04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern   [should be more records]
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [may be gone now]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Near Threatened
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Data Deficient   [imprecise location]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Regionally Extinct   [possibly extinct; unlikely habitat]
IBRA regions
2 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Southern Flinders (FLB04)Flinders Lofty BlockCritically Endangered
  (IUCN: CR D)   (Definite Decline)   [need to do more surveys]
4 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Vulnerable
, Endangered
5 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
, Data Deficient
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaRegionally Extinct
  [possibly extinct; unlikely habitat]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Spyridium]
Name derivation:
Spyridium from the Greek 'spyridion' meaning a small basket; referring to the flowerheads which are circled by leafy bracts. Subochreatum from the Latin 'sub' meaning towards and Greek 'orchre' meaning yellow ochre; alluding to the pale yellow flowers.
Found in the southern part of South Australia, growing in heath and mallee on sandy soil. Also found in Western Australia and Victoria.
Native. Common in South Australia. Rare in Western Australia. Common in Victoria.
Plant description:
Perennial shrub, sometimes reaching more than 1 m in height. Leaves to 12 mm long and 6 mm wide, linear to linear-oblong, hoary above sometimes becoming glabrous, grey-green. Flowers in dense globular compound heads to 12 mm diameter, floral tube stellate-hairy, white. Flowering between September and December.
Fruit type:
Brown obovoid capsule to 2 mm long, covered with hairs.
Seed type:
Flattened, obovoid orange seed to 1.5 mm long and 1 mm wide, sometimes spotted or mottled.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect fruit heads that are darkening and have a fluffy appearance. Rub the flower parts in your palm to seed if there is any seed, which should be yellow and hard.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for a week. Then rub the heads with your hands or a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Be careful as the seeds are very small. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
Seed set can be low, however, viability is high. From two collections, the seed viability were average to high, ranging from 70% to 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has physiological dormancy that need to be overcome for the seed to germinate (e.g. nicking or softening the seed coat).
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
6100 (2.44 g)
6100 (2.44 g)
BGA4100 (1.484 g)7-Nov-2013JRG58
24-Mar-2015 (Xray 70%)-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jun-1584%7 d21 d seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Nov-1446%61 dNA seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
6 weeks spring/autumn, then winter;
Nov-1424%61 dNA boiling water 30 s;
1% agar;
5 weeks spring/autumn, then winter;
Jun-152%42 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
1% agar;
4 weeks spring/autumn, then winter;
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)