Seeds of South Australia
Spyridium thymifolium (Rhamnaceae)
Thyme-leaf Spyridium
List of species for Spyridium
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Seed collecting:
November to January
Herbarium regions:
Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South East
IBRA regions
Lucindale (NCP03)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Near Threatened
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [checked by J Kellerman, some records okay, outliers]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Spyridium]
Name derivation:
Spyridium from the Greek word spyridion, meaning a small basket, and refers to the flower heads which are circled by leafy bracts; thymifolium refers to the thyme like leaves.
Mainly found on the Fleurieu Peninsula and Kangaroo Island, endemic to South Australia.
Native, common on the southern part of the Fleurieu Peninsula.
Plant description:
Small shrub, to 50 cm high, slender branchlets white or rusty, leaves ovate to round, flat or somewhat concave above, upper surface glabrous, lower surface greyish-tomentose with prominent nerves; stipules brownish-black. Flowers September to February, compound heads, with 2 or 3 floral leaves, white-velvety above, capsule ovoid, almost glabrous.
Fruit type:
Membranous fruitlets.
Seed type:
Smooth, ellipsoid seed approx 1 mm long, dark yellow/brown seed coat with dark green mottling.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect ripe flower heads that have yellowed or brown bracts and mottled coloured seeds that can be easily rubbed out by hand.
Seed cleaning:
Leave to dry for 1 -2 weeks then gently rub seeds through a sieve. Separate unwanted material. Store the seeds with desiccant such as silica beads or dry rice in an air tight container in a cool place.
Seed viability:
From 3 collections viability ranged from 50 to 100%.
Seed germination:
Seeds have physical dormancy which can be broken by nicking the seed coat or covering seeds with boiling water and allowing to cool. Germination was highest in winter conditions. Seed collection and provision of seedlings for revegetation at Deep Creek were supported by ALMR NRM in 2017.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA1080 (0.51 g)50+12-Dec-2006DJD728
Kangaroo Island
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-1680%21 d35 d hot water (100 °C) poured over left to soak 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1620%21 dNA hot water (100 °C) poured over left to soak 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)