Seeds of South Australia
Taraxacum cygnorum (Compositae)
Native Dandelion
List of species for Taraxacum
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Seed collecting:
September to January
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Eyre Peninsula, South East
IBRA regions
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Endangered   (IUCN: )   (Definite Decline)
Talia (EYB04)Eyre Yorke Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: )   (Probable Decline)
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Taraxacum]
Name derivation:
Taraxacum from the modern Latin 'taraxacum' which is from the Persian 'tarkhashqun' meaning a bitter herb or dandelion. Cygnorum from the Latin 'cygnis' meaning a cygnet or young swan; alluding to the shape of the flower and flower-stalk, bent like a swan's neck. 
Limited occurrences on Eyre Peninsula and Upper Southeast. Also found in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmanis. Was recorded from Western Australia but now presumed extincted.
Native. Extremely rare in South Australia. Very rare in the other States. Extinct in Western Australia.
Plant description:
Leaves oblong to linear-lanceolate, to 12 cm long, glabrescent, lobes 4–7 on each side, short, obtusely to acutely deltoid to hamate-attenuate, sometimes pointing forward, distal margins denticulate to lobulate; interlobes entire to acutely denticulate; petioles usually pale, very narrowly winged. Flower-spike solitary with pale lemon-yellow dandilion-like daisy flower. Looks like the introduced dandilion but distinguished by the shape, texture and size of the seed. Flowering between October and December.
Fruit type:
Pale brown, long ovoid daisy-head with long bracts covering the seeds.
Seed type:
Dark red to blackish-purple ovoid seeds to 6 mm long, spinulose above, rugose below to the base, with a ring of hairs at the end of a long tail.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect heads that are turning brown, seeds should easily be pull out.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the heads gently with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 85%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jun-1398%7 d7 d 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 4 d;
1% agar;
12/12;  /  20°C
Jun-1390%7 d14 d
1% agar;
12/12;  /  20°C
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)