Seeds of South Australia
Taraxacum cygnorum (Compositae)
Native Dandelion
List of species for Taraxacum
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Seed collecting:
September to January
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Eyre Peninsula, South East
IBRA regions
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Endangered   (IUCN: )   (Definite Decline)
Talia (EYB04)Eyre Yorke Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: )   (Probable Decline)
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Taraxacum]
Name derivation:
Taraxacum from the modern Latin 'taraxacum' which is from the Persian 'tarkhashqun' meaning a bitter herb or dandelion. Cygnorum from the Latin 'cygnis' meaning a cygnet or young swan; alluding to the shape of the flower and flower-stalk, bent like a swan's neck. 
Distribution:
Limited occurrences on Eyre Peninsula and Upper Southeast. Also found in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmanis. Was recorded from Western Australia but now presumed extincted.
Status:
Native. Extremely rare in South Australia. Very rare in the other States. Extinct in Western Australia.
Plant description:
Leaves oblong to linear-lanceolate, to 12 cm long, glabrescent, lobes 4–7 on each side, short, obtusely to acutely deltoid to hamate-attenuate, sometimes pointing forward, distal margins denticulate to lobulate; interlobes entire to acutely denticulate; petioles usually pale, very narrowly winged. Flower-spike solitary with pale lemon-yellow dandilion-like daisy flower. Looks like the introduced dandilion but distinguished by the shape, texture and size of the seed. Flowering between October and December.
Fruit type:
Pale brown, long ovoid daisy-head with long bracts covering the seeds.
Seed type:
Dark red to blackish-purple ovoid seeds to 6 mm long, spinulose above, rugose below to the base, with a ring of hairs at the end of a long tail.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect heads that are turning brown, seeds should easily be pull out.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the heads gently with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 85%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jun-1398%7 d7 d 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 4 d;
1% agar;
12/12;  /  20°C
Jun-1390%7 d14 d
1% agar;
12/12;  /  20°C
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)